Bruce Gardiner  from Murdoch University in Perth Australia.

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    Professor Bruce Gardiner
    BSc(Hons), PhD

    About me

    My research focuses on integrating the physical, chemical and biological processes defining biological systems. This is relevant to understanding diseases such as osteoarthritis, tendonopathy, colorectal cancer, and acute kidney injury. Primarily this integration is done through developing computational and mathematical models of these systems. However all projects involve close collaboration with experimental biologists and clinicians.

    I have PhD projects at the interface between phyics, biology, medicine, engineering and mathematics. Please contact me if you are interested to find out more.

    Interested in Physics? Here is the link to Murdoch’s Physics community.

    Teaching area

    MAS225 Discrete Mathematics and Management Science (i.e. optimisation) (2021-)
    MAS162 Foundations of Discrete Mathematics (Open Universities Australia 2021-, Dubai 2021-)
    BRD209 Creativity and Innovation (Perth 2016-, Open Universities Australia 2016-, Singapore 2017-2020)
    ART202 The Weight of Data (guest lecture, 2019-)
    BIO378 Systems Biology (1 week, 2016-)
    PEN120 General Physics (4 weeks of lectures, 2015)

    Research areas

    Musculoskeletal tissue
    For around 17 years I have been working on understanding how various musculoskeletal tissues maintain their functional properties over time, adapt to new requirements or are compromised leading to disease. I have focused on cartilage, bone and more recently tendon. It is well known that load-bearing exercise can help maintain bone and avoid osteoporosis. How bone cells sense and respond to the mechanical load they experience is referred to as the bone mechanostat. This is a bone adaption to a changing requirement (e.g. manual labour versus office work). More generally bone cells must continuously repair damage (microfractures) caused by normal daily activity before these microfractures ‘join up’ into a (stress) fracture. This daily repair and the mechanostat both involve multiple bone cell types (e.g. osteoclasts, osteoblasts) and a range of chemical signals (feedback control, e.g. RANK, RANKL, TGFβ) and a bit of materials science. More recently my colleagues and I have proposed similar processes are occurring in tendon and have published for the first time in the literature a tendon mechanostat theory. We have also developed computational models of key cell signalling pathways, specifically the Insulin-like growth factors (IGF), and Interleukin (IL-1α) and their role in tissue synthesis and degradation.

    The contradiction my colleagues and I have been focused on for more than a decade is that the kidney is seemingly oversupplied with oxygen and yet it is often found to be hypoxic. Oxygen is thought to be a common pathway to acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease. Some 30% of patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass surgery have measurable kidney injury and around 3% require dialysis. Our research in this area has been at the fundamental physiology of oxygen delivery, transport and usage in the kidney and at the clinical end in devising methods to monitor kidney oxygen during major surgery.

    Glaucoma surgery and fluid flow in the eye
    Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness in the world. The main treatment is aimed at reducing the elevated fluid pressure in the eye associated with this disease. Fluid (so-called aqueous humour) is continuously produced and lost in the eye. Blockage to the normal fluid outflow leads to a build-up in fluid pressure. Sometimes this is surgically released by creating a new outflow pathway into the space between the sclera (the white of the eye) and the conjunctiva (clear tissue covering the sclera). The success of this surgery depends on how much subsequent scarring occurs at the site of fluid egress. Surgical success rates are poor. We model fluid transport in tissue as a tissue remodels, to elucidate what might be causing surgical failure and suggest ways to avoid failure. More recently we have published a technique to better estimate the fluid turnover in the eye to understand all pathways for fluid loss in the eye and the pressures experienced at the back of the eye.

    Awards and grants


    2018-2020 ARC DP180103039 Physiology of oxygen transport in the mammalian kidney, B Gardiner, R Evans, G. Schroeder-Turk, J. Bertram, D.Smith
    2018-2020 ARC DP180100915 Interaction between consolidation and lubrication of biological joints, L Zhang, D. Smith, B. Gardiner
    2018-2019 Australia-Germany Joint Research Co-operation Scheme, Structural organisation of multi-cellular materials: Applications to tissues and mechanobiology, B. Gardiner (Australia), A.-S. Smith (Germany), G. Schroeder-Turk (Australia)
    2017-2019 NHMRC 1122455 Towards prevention of acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery, R Evans, C May, J Smith, D Smith, A Thrift, B Gardiner, A Cochrane
    2014-2016 ARC DP14010345 The comparative physiology of oxygen delivery to the kidney, D Smith, R Evans, B Gardiner, J Pearson, M Kett
    2013-2015 NHMRC 1051538 Bridging the gap between cartilage biology and osteoarthritis risk prediction, B Gardiner, D Smith, D Lloyd, A Grodzinsky, L Zhang, T Besier
    2013-2015 NHMRC 1051455 Glycomic control of cartilage extra cellular matrix turnover, D Smith, D Coombe, B Gardiner, A Grodzinsky
    2012-2014 NHMRC 1029628 Investigating the roles of the wnt and notch signalling systems in colon, A Burgess, B Gardiner, D Smith
    2011-2014 ARC LP110100581 Bioengineered bioscaffolds for Achilles tendinopathy treatment, DG Lloyd, DW Smith, J Xu, BS Gardiner, TB Kirk, J Rubenson, M Zheng
    2010-2012 NH&MRC 606601 Hypoxia is the common pathway to renal failure, R Evans, J Bertram, M Schlaich, B Gardiner D Smith, J Phillips
    2009 UWA Professor-at-large Scheme. Grant to have Professor Alan Grodzinsky (MIT) visit UWA twice during 2010-2011
    2009-2011 ARC DP0988001 Engineering cartilage homeostasis in health and disease, DW Smith, BS Gardiner, AJ Grodzinsky
    2009-2011 NH&MRC 542531 Stimulations of colon cancer, AW Burgess, DW Smith, BS Gardiner
    2009-2011 NH&MRC 529918 Regulating fluid mechanics to improve the outcome of glaucoma surgery, JG Crowston, DW Smith, BS Gardiner, MA Coote
    2009-2010 Prostate Cancer Foundation of Australia Concept grant CG10 Integrative systems modelling of prostate cancer bone metastases, DW Smith, BS Gardiner, P Pivonka, GR Mundy, NA Bhowmick.
    2005 Australian Academy of Science Scientific visits to the United States, Canada and Mexico. Visit to Center for Biomedical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston USA.
    2003 Melbourne Research Grant Scheme, A. Tordesillas, B. Gardiner
    2002 ARC Australian Postdoctoral Fellowship (APD) DP0211085 Behaviour of particles in flotation froths, G Jameson, AV Nguyen, JS Van Deventer, BS Gardiner
    1995 University of Newcastle Postgraduate Research Scholarship

    Events and speaking engagements

    WA Australian Institute of Physics, Guest Speaker, 25th November 2015. Morpheus: “The Matrix is a system, Neo.”

    Professional and community service


    Academic Council (Academic staff elected representative) (2021-2024)

    College Research Committee, (2019-)

    Level D-E Probation and Promotions committee (2016-)

    Deputy Dean, School of Engineering and IT, Murdoch University (2016-2019)

    Head of Discipline, Electrical Engineering, Energy and Physics, Murdoch University (2017-2019)

    Academic Chair, Physics and Nanotechnology, Murdoch University (2015-2017)


    Australian Institute of Physics, WA branch executive committee (2020-)

    American Institute of Physiology member (2020-)


    Find me on Google Scholar


    Smith, D.W., B.S. Gardiner, L. Zhang, A.J. Grodzinsky, Articular Cartilage Dynamics, Springer, Singapore, 2019. Link

    Book Chapters:

    Joldes, G.R., G.C. Bourantas, A. Wittek, K. Miller, D.W. Smith, B.S. Gardiner, A discrete element method for modelling cell mechanics: Application to the simulation of chondrocyte behavior in the growth plate, in Computational Biomechanics for Medicine: Measurements, Models, and Predictions, Springer International Publishing, pp 93-103, 2019.

    Evans, R.G., J.A. Smith, B.S. Gardiner, D.W. Smith, A.G. Thrift, Y.R. Lankadeeva, C.N. May, A.D. Cochrane, Hypoxia as a biomarker of kidney disease. Diseases of the Kidney, Eds Preedy V.R. & Patel V.B, Series: Biomarkers of Disease: Methods, Discoveries and Applications (series editor V.R. Preedy), Springer, Netherlands, pp 1-23, 2016.

    Zhang, L., B.S. Gardiner, D.W. Smith, P. Pivonka, A.J. Grodzinsky, The Transport of Insulin-like Growth Factor through Cartilage, in Porous Media Applications in Biological Systems and Biotechnology, Editor K. Vafai, CRC, 1st Edition, pp 399-453, Dec 2010.

    Journal Publications:

    Lee, C.J., BS Gardiner, RG Evans, D.W. Smith, Predicting oxygen tension along the ureter, American Journal of Physiology: Renal Physiology 321: F527–F547, 2021. Link

    Liao, J., D.W. Smith, S. Miramini, B.S. Gardiner, L. Zhang, Investigation of role of cartilage surface polymer brush border in lubrication of biological joints, Friction, 1-18, 2021. Link

    Liao, J., D.W. Smith, S. Miramini, B.S. Gardiner, L. Zhang, A probabilistic failure risk approach to the problem of articular cartilage lubrication, Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, 203, 106053 2021. Link


    Gardiner, B.S., D.W. Smith, C.-J. Lee, J.P. Ngo, R.G. Evans, Renal oxygenation: from data to insight, Acta Physiologica 228 (4), e13450-e13450, 2020. Link

    Smith, D.W., C.-J. Lee, B.S. Gardiner, Estimating outflow facility parameters for the human eye using hypotensive pressure-time data, Plos one 15 (8), e0238146, 2020. Link

    Smith, D.W., C.-J. Lee, B.S. Gardiner, No flow through the vitreous humor: how strong is the evidence? Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, 78, 100845, 2020. Link

    Lee, C.J., BS Gardiner, D.W. Smith, A cardiovascular model for renal perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery, Computers in Biology and Medicine 119, 103676, 2020. Link

    Liao, J., D.W. Smith, S. Miramini, B.S. Gardiner, L. Zhang, A coupled contact model of cartilage lubrication in the mixed-mode regime under static compression, Tribology International, 106185, 2020. Link

    Evans, R.G., D.W. Smith, C.-J. Lee, J.P. Ngo, B.S. Gardiner, What makes the kidney susceptible to hypoxia? The Anatomical Record, 303(10): 2544-2552, 2020. Link


    Klatt, M., J. Lovrić, D. Chen, S. Kapfer, F. Schaller, P. Schönhöfer, B.S. Gardiner, A.-S. Smith, G. Schroeder-Turk, S. Torquato, Universal hidden order in amorphous cellular geometries, Nature Communications 10(1): 811, 2019. Link

    Lee, C.J., B.S. Gardiner, R.G. Evans, D.W. Smith, Analysis of the critical determinants of renal medullary oxygenation, American Journal of Physiology-Renal Physiology, (online preprint), 2019. Link

    Liao, J., D.W. Smith, S. Miramini, N. Thibbotuwawa, B.S. Gardiner, L. Zhang, The investigation of fluid flow in cartilage contact gap, Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials 95: 153-164, 2019. Link

    Smith, D.W., C.-J. Lee, W. Morgan, B.S. Gardiner, Estimating three-dimensional outflow and pressure gradients within the human eye, PLoS One 14(4): e0214961, 2019. Pdf

    Lee, C.J., D.W. Smith, B.S. Gardiner, R.G. Evans, Stimulation of erythropoietin release by hypoxia and hypoxemia: similar but different, Kidney International, 95(1): 23-25, 2019. Link

    Joldes, G.R. D.W. Smith, B.S. Gardiner, Efficient solution methods for modelling slowly evolving mechanical phenomena in cells and tissues using the discrete element method, Engineering Analysis with Boundary Elements, 100: 175-184, 2019. Link


    Lee, C.J., B.S. Gardiner, R.G. Evans, D.W. Smith, A model of oxygen transport in the rat renal medulla, American Journal of Physiology-Renal Physiology, 315: F1787-F1811, 2018.

    Killen, B.A., D.J. Saxby, K. Fortin, B.S. Gardiner, T.V. Wrigley, A.L. Bryant, D.G. Lloyd, Individual muscle contributions to tibiofemoral compressive articular loading during walking, running and sidestepping, Journal of Biomechanics 80: 23-31, 2018.

    Evans, R.G., Y. Lankadeva, A. Cochrane, B. Marino, N. Iguchi, M. Zhu, S. Hood, J. Smith, R. Bellomo, B. Gardiner, C.J. Lee, D. Smith, C. May, Renal haemodynamics and oxygenation during and after cardiac surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass, Acta Physiologica, 22(3): e12995, 2018. pdf

    Mehdizadeh, A., B.S. Gardiner, M. Lavagnino, D.W. Smith, Effect of collagen length distribution and timing for repair on the active TGF-β concentration in tendon, Connective Tissue Research, 1-14, 2018. Link

    Khan, Z., J.P. Ngo, B. Le, R.G. Evans, J.T. Pearson, B.S. Gardiner, D.W. Smith, Three-dimensional morphometric analysis of the renal vasculature, American Journal of Physiology-Renal Physiology, 314(5): F715-F725, 2018. Link


    Smith, D.W. and B.S. Gardiner, Estimating outflow facility through pressure dependent pathways of the human eye, Plos One, 12(12): e0188769, 2017. Link

    Ngo, J.P., B. Le, Z. Khan, M.M. Kett, B.S. Gardiner, D.W. Smith, M.M. Melhem, A. Maksimenko, J.T. Pearson, R.G. Evans, Micro-computed tomographic analysis of the radial geometry of intrarenal artery-vein pairs in rats and rabbits: comparison with light microscopy, Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, 44: 1241–1253, 2017. Link

    Miramini, S. D.W. Smith, L. Zhang, B.S. Gardiner, The spatio-temporal mechanical environment of healthy and injured human cartilage during sustained activity and its role in cartilage damage, Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, 74: 1-10, 2017.

    Lee, C.J., J.P. Ngo, S. Kar, B.S. Gardiner, R.G. Evans, D.W. Smith, A pseudo-three-dimensional model for quantification of oxygen diffusion from pre-glomerular arteries to renal tissue and renal venous blood, American Journal of Physiology-Renal Physiology, 313: F237-F253, 2017.

    Lee, C.J., B.S. Gardiner, J.P. Ngo, S. Kar, R.G. Evans, D.W. Smith, Accounting for oxygen in the renal cortex: A computational study of factors that predispose the cortex to hypoxia, American Journal of Physiology-Renal Physiology, 313: F218-F236, 2017.

    Mehdizadeh, A., B.S. Gardiner, M. Lavagnino, D.W. Smith, Predicting tenocyte expression profiles and average molecular concentrations in Achilles tendon ECM from tissue strain and fiber damage, Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology, 1-20, 2017. Link.

    Pang, X., J.P. Wu, G.T. Allison, J. Xu, J. Rubenson, M.-H. Zheng, D.G. Lloyd, B. Gardiner, A. Wang, T.B. Kirk, The three dimensional microstructural network of elastin, collagen and cells in Achilles tendons, Journal of Orthopaedic Research, 35: 1203–1214, 2017.


    Kar, S., D.W. Smith, B.S. Gardiner, A.J. Grodzinsky, Systems based study of the therapeutic potential of small charged molecules for the inhibition of IL-1 mediated cartilage degradation, PLoS One, 11(12): e0168047, 2016. Link.

    Young, S.R., B. Gardiner, A. Mehdizadeh, J. Rubenson, B. Umberger, D.W. Smith, Adaptive remodeling of Achilles tendon: A multi-scale computational model, PLoS Computational Biology, 12(9): e1005106, 2016 Link.

    Ngo, NP, C.P.C. Ow, B.S. Gardiner, S. Kar, J.T. Pearson, D.W. Smith, R.G. Evans, Diffusive shunting of gases and other molecules in the renal vasculature: Physiological and evolutionary significance, American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 311(5): R797-R810, 2016. Link

    Sgouralis, I., M.M. Kett, C.P.C. Ow, A. Abdelkader, A.T. Layton, B.S. Gardiner, D.W. Smith, Y.R. Lankadeva, R.G. Evans, Bladder urine oxygen tension for assessing renal medullary oxygenation in rabbits: Experimental and modelling studies, American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 311(3): R532-R544, 2016 Link.

    Kar, S., D.W. Smith, B.S. Gardiner, Y. Li, Y. Wang, A.J. Grodzinsky, Modeling IL-1 induced degradation of articular cartilage, Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 594: 37–53, 2016. Link

    Gardiner, B.S., F.G. Woodhouse, T.F. Besier, A.J. Grodzinsky, D.G. Lloyd, L. Zhang, D.W. Smith, Predicting knee osteoarthritis, Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 44 (1): 222-233, 2016. Link

    Gardiner, B.S., G.R. Joldes, K.K.L. Wong, C.W. Tan, D.W. Smith, Controlling seepage in discrete particle simulations of biological systems, Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering, 19(10): 1160–1170, 2016. Link

    Smith, D.W., B.S. Gardiner, J. Davidson, A.J. Grodzinsky, Computational model for the analysis of cartilage and cartilage tissue constructs, Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, 10: 334–347, 2016. link


    Gardiner, B.S., K.L. Wong, G.R. Joldes, A.J. Rich, C.W. Tan, A.W. Burgess, D.W. Smith, Discrete element framework for modelling extracellular matrix, deformable cells and subcellular components, PLoS Computational Biology, 11(10): e1004544.
    doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1004544, 2015. Link

    Wang, T., Z. Lin, M. Ni, C. Thien, R.E. Day, B.S. Gardiner, J. Rubenson, T.B. Kirk, D.W. Smith, A. Wang, D.G. Lloyd, Y. Wang, Q. Zheng, M.H. Zheng, Cyclic mechanical stimulation rescues rabbit Achilles tendon from degeneration in a bioreactor system, Journal of Orthopaedic Research, 33(12): 1888-1896, 2015. Link

    Evans, R.G., D.W. Smith, Z. Khan, J.P. Ngo, B.S. Gardiner, The plausibility of arterial-to-venous oxygen shunting in the kidney: It all depends on radial geometry, Letter to Editor, American Journal of Physiology: Renal Physiology, 309: F179–F180, 2015.

    Woodhouse, F.G., B.S. Gardiner, D.W. Smith, Short-term consolidation of articular cartilage in the long-term context of osteoarthritis, Journal of Theoretical Biology, 368: 102-112, 2015. Link

    Sgouralis, I., R.G. Evans, B.S. Gardiner, B. Fry, A.T. Layton, Renal hemodynamics, function and oxygenation during cardiac surgery performed on cardiopulmonary bypass: A modeling study, Physiological Reports, 3(1): e12260, 2015. Link

    Zhang, L., S. Miramini, D.W. Smith, B.S. Gardiner, A.J. Grodzinsky, Time evolution of deformation in a human cartilage under cyclic loading, Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 43(5): 1166–1177, 2015. Link


    Shim,V.B., J.W. Fernandez, P.B. Gamage, C. Regnery, D.W. Smith, B.S. Gardiner, D.G. Lloyd, T.F. Besier, Subject-specific finite element analysis to characterize the influence of geometry and material properties in Achilles tendon Rupture, Journal of Biomechanics, 47(15): 3598-3604, 2014. Link

    J.P. Ngo, S. Kar, M.M. Kett, B.S. Gardiner, J.T. Pearson, D.W. Smith, J. Ludbrook, J.F. Bertram, R.G. Evans, Vascular geometry and oxygen diffusion in the vicinity of artery-vein pairs in the kidney, American Journal of Physiology-Renal Physiology, 307(10): F1111-F1122, 2014. pdf

    C.W. Tan, B.S. Gardiner, Y. Hirokawa, D.W. Smith, A.W. Burgess, Analysis of Wnt signaling beta-catenin spatial dynamics in HEK293T cells, BMC Systems Biology 8(1): 44, 2014. pdf

    Evans, R.G., J. Smith, C. Wright, B.S. Gardiner, D.W. Smith, A. Cochrane, Urinary oxygen tension: a clinical window on the health of the renal medulla?, American Journal of Physiology – Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 306(1): R45-R50, 2014. pdf


    Tan, C.W., Y. Hirokawa, B.S. Gardiner, D.W. Smith, A.W. Burgess, Colon cryptogenesis: Asymmetric budding, PLoS ONE 8(10): e78519. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0078519, 2013. pdf

    van der Wath, R.C., B.S. Gardiner, A.W. Burgess, D.W. Smith, Cell organisation in the colonic crypt: A theoretical comparison of the pedigree and niche concepts, PLoS ONE 8(9): e73204. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0073204e66870, 2013. pdf

    Zhang, L., D.S. Smith, B.S. Gardiner, A.J. Grodzinsky, Modeling the Insulin-like Growth Factor system in articular cartilage, PLoS ONE 8(6): e66870, 2013. pdf

    Smith, D.W., J. Rubenson, D. Lloyd, M.H. Zheng, J. Fernandez, T. Besier, J. Xu, B.S. Gardiner, A conceptual framework for computational models of Achilles tendon homeostasis, WIREs Systems Biology and Medicine, 5(5): 523-38, 2013. doi: 10.1002/wsbm.1229. pdf

    Evans, R.G., C. Ince, J.A. Joles, D.W. Smith, C.N. May, P.M. O’Connor, B.S. Gardiner, Haemodynamic influences on kidney oxygenation: The clinical implications of integrative physiology, Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, 40(2): 106-122, 2013. pdf

    Wang, T., Z. Lin, R.E. Day, B.S. Gardiner, E. Landao-Bassonga, J. Rubenson, T.B. Kirk, D.W. Smith, D.G. Lloyd, G. Hardisty, A. Wang, M.H. Zheng, Programmable mechanical stimulation on tendon homeostasis in a bioreactor system, Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 110(5): 1495-1507, 2013. pdf


    Wang, T., Gardiner, B.S., Lin, Z., Rubenson, J., Kirk, T.B., Wang, A., Xu, J., Smith, D.W., Lloyd, D.G., Zheng, M.H., Bioreactor design for tendon/ligament engineering, Tissue Engineering 19(2): 1-14, 2012 pdf

    Nguyen, D.Q., Ross, C.M., Li, Y.Q., Lo, I., Pandav, S., Gardiner, B., Smith, D., How, A.C., Crowston, J.G., Coote, M.A., A model to measure fluid outflow in rabbit capsules post glaucoma implant surgery, IOVS- Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 53: 6914-6919, 2012.  pdf

    Gardiner, B.S., Thompson, S.L., Ngo, J.P., Smith, D.W., Abdelkader, A., Broughton, B.R.S., Bertram, J.F., Evans, R.G., Diffusive oxygen shunting between vessels in the pre-glomerular renal vasculature: anatomical observations and computational modeling, American Journal of Physiology – Renal Physiology 303: F605-F618, 2012, doi:10.1152/ajprenal.00186.2012  pdf

    Smith, D.W., Gardiner, B.S., Dunstan, C., Bone balance within a cortical BMU: local controls of bone resorption and formation, PLoS ONE 7(7): e40268, 2012. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0040268.  pdf

    Buenzli, P.R., Pivonka, P., Gardiner, B.S., Smith, D.W., Modelling the anabolic response of bone using a cell population model, Journal of Theoretical Biology 307: 42-52, 2012  pdf

    Tan, C.W., Gardiner, B.S., Hirokawa, Y., Layton, M.J., Smith, D.W., Burgess, A.W., Wnt signalling pathway parameters for mammalian cells, PLoS ONE 7(2): e31882, 2012. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0031882.  pdf


    Gardiner, B.S., L. Zhang, D.W. Smith, P. Pivonka, A.J. Grodzinsky, A mathematical model for targeting chemicals to tissues by exploiting complex degradation, Biology Direct 6:46, 1-16, 2011.

    Gardiner, B.S., D.W. Smith, P.M. O’Connor, R.G. Evans, A mathematical model of diffusional shunting of oxygen from arteries to veins in the kidney, American Journal of Physiology – Renal Physiology 300: F1339-F1352, 2011.  pdf

    Gardiner, B.S.,  D.W. Smith, M. Coote, J.G. Crowston, Computational modeling of fluid flow and intra-ocular pressure following glaucoma surgery, PLoS ONE 5(10): e13178, 2010. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0013178   pdf

    Zhang, L., Gardiner, B.S., Smith, D.W., Pivonka, P., Grodzinsky, A.J., On the role of diffusible binding partners in modulating the transport and concentration of proteins in tissues, Journal of Theoretical Biology 263: 20-29, 2010.  pdf

    Pivonka, P., J. Zimak, D.W. Smith, B.S. Gardiner, C.R. Dunstan, N.A. Sims, T.J. Martin, G.R. Mundy, Theoretical investigation of the role of the  RANK-RANKL-OPG system in bone remodeling, Journal of Theoretical Biology 262: 306:316, 2010. pdf

    Zhang, L.,  B.S. Gardiner, D.W. Smith, P. Pivonka, A.J. Grodzinsky, Integrated model of IGF-I mediated biosynthesis in deformed articular cartilage, Appeared in a topically issue on Micro and Nanomechanics of Biological and Bio-inspired Materials, Journal of Engineering Mechanics 135(5): 439-449, 2009.

    Pivonka, P., G.A. Narsilio, R.N. Li, D.W. Smith, B. Gardiner, Electrodiffusive Transport in Charged Porous Media: From the Particle-Level Scale to the Macroscopic Scale Using Volume Averaging, Journal of Porous Media 12(2):101-118, 2009.

    Zhang, L., B.S. Gardiner, D.W. Smith, P. Pivonka, A.J. Grodzinsky, IGF Uptake with Competitive Binding in articular cartilage, Journal of Biological Systems 6(2):175-195, 2008. link

    Pivonka, P., J. Zimak, D.W. Smith, B. Gardiner, C.B. Dunstan, N.A. Sims, T.J. Martin, G. Mundy. Model structure and control of bone remodeling: A theoretical study, Bone 43: 249-263, 2008. link

    Zhang, L., B. Gardiner, D.W. Smith, P. Pivonka, A. Grodzinsky, A fully coupled poroelastic reactive-transport model of cartilage, Molecular & Cellular Biomechanics 5(2): 133-153, 2008. link

    Evans, R.G., B.S Gardiner, D.W. Smith, P.M. O’Connor, Intrarenal oxygenation: unique challenges and the biophysical basis of homeostasis, American Journal of Physiology – Renal Physiology 295: F1259-F1270, 2008. pdf

    Evans, R.G., B.S Gardiner, D.W. Smith, P.M. O’Connor, Methods for studying the physiology of kidney oxygenation, Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology 35: 1405-1412, 2008. pdf

    Zhang, L., B.S. Gardiner, D.W. Smith, P. Pivonka, A.J. Grodzinsky, The effect of cyclic deformation and solute binding on solute transport in cartilage, Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 457 : 47-56, 2007. pdf

    Gardiner, B.S., D.W. Smith, P. Pivonka, A.J. Grodzinsky, E.H. Frank and L. Zhang, Solute transport in cartilage undergoing cyclic deformation, Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering 10: 265-278, 2007. link

    Pivonka, P., Smith, D.W., B. Gardiner, Investigation of Donnan equilibrium in charged porous materials: a scale transition analysis, Transport in Porous Media 69 : 215-237, 2007.   pdf

    Gardiner B.S., A. Tordesillas. Effects of particle size distribution in a three-dimensional micropolar continuum model of granular media, Powder Technology 161: 110-121, 2006. pdf

    Gardiner, B.S., D.W. Smith, P. Pivonka. A two-dimensional mathematical model for dorsal appendage cell patterning in Drosophila. Developmental Biology 283: 688, 553, 2005.

    Boudreau, B.P., C. Algar, B.D. Johnson, I. Croudace, A. Reed, Y. Furukawa, K.M. Dorgan, P.A. Jumars, A.S. Grader, B.S. Gardiner. Bubble growth and rise in soft sediments, Geology 33(6): 517-520, 2005.

    Gardiner B.S., A. Tordesillas, The link between discrete and continuous modeling of liquid foam at the level of a single bubble. Journal of Rheology 49(4): 819-838, 2005.

    Gardiner B.S., A. Tordesillas, Micromechanical constitutive modelling of granular media: evolution and loss of contact in particle clusters, Journal of Engineering Mathematics 52 (1-3): 93-106, 2005.

    Tordesillas, A., S. D. C. Walsh, B.S. Gardiner, Bridging the length scales: micromechanics of granular media. BIT Numerical Mathematics 44: 539-556, 2004.

    Gardiner, B.S., A. Tordesillas, Micromechanics of shear bands. International Journal of Solids and Structures 41, pp. 5885-5901, 2004.

    Tordesillas, A., J.F. Peters, B.S. Gardiner, Shear band evolution and accumulated microstructural development in Cosserat media. International Journal of Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics. 28: pp. 981-1010, 2004.

    Tordesillas, A., J. F. Peters, B.S. Gardiner, Insights into 1D localisation theory and micromechanical constitutive laws. Geotechnique. 54: 327-330, 2004.

    Gardiner, B.S., B. P. Boudreau, B. D. Johnson, Slow growth of an isolated disk-shaped bubble of constant eccentricity in the presence of a distributed gas source. Applied Mathematical Modelling 27: 817-829, 2003.

    Gardiner, B.S., B. P. Boudreau B. D. Johnson, Growth of disk-shaped bubbles in sediments. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 67: 1485-1494, 2003.

    Johnson, B.D., B. P. Boudreau, B.S. Gardiner, R. Maas, Mechanical response of sediments to bubble growth. Marine Geology 187: 347-363, 2002.

    Boudreau, B.P., B.S. Gardiner, B. D. Johnson, Rate of growth of isolated bubbles in sediments with a diagenetic source of methane (vol 46, pg 616, 2001). Limnology and Oceanography. 46: 1578-1578, 2001.

    Boudreau, B.P., B.S. Gardiner, B. D. Johnson, Rate of growth of isolated bubbles in sediments with a diagenetic source of methane, Limnology and Oceanography 46: 616-622, 2001.

    Gardiner, B.S., B.Z. Dlugogorski, G.J. Jameson. Coarsening of two- and three-dimensional wet polydisperse foams. Philosophical Magazine A-Physics of Condensed Matter Struct. Defects Mech. Prop. 80: 981-1000, 2000.

    Gardiner, B.S., B.Z. Dlugogorski, G.J. Jameson, The steady shear of three-dimensional wet polydisperse foams. Journal of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics 92: 151-166, 2000.

    Gardiner, B.S., B.Z. Dlugogorski, G.J. Jameson, The evolution of defects in a two-dimensional wet foam. Journal of Physics-Condensed Matter 11: 5437-5453, 1999.

    Gardiner, B.S., B.Z. Dlugogorski, G.J. Jameson, Prediction of pressure losses in pipe flow of aqueous foam. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research 38: 1099-1106, 1999.

    Gardiner, B.S., B.Z. Dlugogorski, G.J. Jameson, Rheology of fire-fighting foams. Fire Safety Journal 31: 61-75, 1998.

    Gardiner, B.S., B.Z. Dlugogorski, G.J. Jameson, R. P. Chhabra. Yield stress measurements of aqueous foams in the dry limit. Journal of Rheology 42: 1437-1450, 1998