Diane Lee  from Murdoch University in Perth Australia.

Contact me


+61 8 9360 2616



Fellow researchers

    Latest news

    • Research
    • School

    Dr Diane Lee
    PhD (JCU); GradCert Tertiary Teaching (JCU); BAdmin (Tourism) (Honours) (JCU)

    Senior Lecturer, Tourism Program

    About me

    I am interested in all things “Tourism”.  My key focus of interest in tourism relates to the  concept of sustainable tourism development, incorporating the environment in all its aspects. This covers the areas of host community attitudes and the social representation of tourism;cultural tourism; nature based tourism; and resource economics, where tourism resources are valued in the same manner as the resources of other industries.

    I have been involved in the teaching of sustainable tourism at the university level since 1998; and was a member of the State Sustainability Strategy on Tourism indicators and  the State Network Coordinator of the Sustainable Tourism Cooperative Research Centre 2004-2006.  I have also been involved in the  Forum Advocating Cultural and Ecotourism as  an Executive Committee Member. My recent research focuses on tourism in Nature based settings and teaching approaches for Tertiary tourism studies. I teach across a broad range of tourism studies and am currently engaged in transforming classes from traditional to blended learning approaches.

    Teaching area

    Over the years of teaching tourism, I have been involved in most of the units taught.  As of 2017, the Tourism and Events major is housed in the School of Arts with our students graduating with a BA.  We deliver our units internally on campus; in external mode and offshore in Singapore.  In 2016 I took a major role in transforming the School’s transnational units to a blended learning approach.  I now deliver my onshore units through blended learning and enjoy the longer face to face time that I have with students.

    Units in which I am currently involved in include:-

    • Event Policy and Evaluation
    • Introduction to Tourism Systems
    • Sustainable Tourism
    • Indigenous Tourism Issues
    • Cultural Tourism Interpretation
    • Tourism & Events Research Project
    • Hospitality & Tourism Research Project

    I have previously been involved our Event Internship and have taught in the School-wide transition to university unit, BAR100 Academic Learning Skills.

    Research areas

    • Tourism development
    • Community Attitudes towards Tourism
    • Tourism Modelling
    • Regional Tourism
    • Wildlife Tourism
    • Protected Area Partnerships and Tourism.

    Much of Diane’s research has been undertaken as part of Australian wide teams and she enjoys the collegial focus of working in teams. Diane’s ability to provide expertise on “Tourism” to diverse projects is reflected in her publication list.  Research income for Murdoch University to date (for the period at Murdoch University: 1998-present) is $950,00. Published outputs over this period include refereed journal articles and 3 book chapters, 1 monograph chapter, 1 industry journal article, 7 CRC Technical reports and 2 Government Reports.  $600,000 of the incoming funds supported 3 Sustainable Tourism Research Fellows at 3 WA universities for 3 years each.

    Current projects

    Current projects include:

    • Genome Tourism. An international collaboration with Singapore.
    • Wildlife Tourism. An international collaboration with Peking University.
    • Tourism and Temple.  A Balinese perspective. An international collaboration with Universitas Udayana, Bali.
    • Trophy Hunting As Sustainable Tourism.

    Awards and grants


    Projects/Grants (1998-2016)




    Amt ($)



    Dong-A University (Korea) Australian Tertiary Tourism Studies


    D Lee 1998
    CRC ST Dolphin Tourist Interaction


    D Lee 1999
    CRC ST Tapestry Tourism Futures Project


    D Lee/T Sofield 2001/2
    CRC ST Tourism Awareness and Attitude Change


    D Lee 2002
    CRC ST Valuing Natural Assets


    D Lee 2003
    CALM Visitor Satisfaction Albany National Parks


    D Lee/S Barnard 2003
    ST CRC Network Coordinator


    D Lee 2004
    ST CRC The role of wildlife icons as major tourist attractions


    D Lee (from A Smith  and D Newsome) 2004
    ST CRC Impacts of new and high impact tourism activities – Byron Bay Dolphins


    D Lee 2004
    ST CRC Network Coordinator


    D Lee 2004
    ST CRC Evaluation of the Tapestry Tourism Futures Placement


    D Lee 2005
    ST CRC Network Coordinator


    D Lee 2006
    ST CRC User fees in natural areas


    D Lee 2006
    WA State Govt Centre of Excellence for STCRC


    D Lee/J Macbeth/D Newsome/S Moore 2006
    ST CRC Centre of Excellence for STCRC


    D Lee/J Macbeth/D Newsome/S Moore 2006
    STCRC Partnerships in Protected areas S Moore 2007
    ST CRC Regional Tourism Best Practice


    J Macbeth/D Lee 2007
    ST CRC Regional Tourism Best Practice


    D Lee 2007
    ST CRC Regional Tourism Best Practice


    D Lee 2008
    Fed DITR Indian and Chinese Investment into Australia (Consultancy for Federal DITR from JCU)


    D Lee 2007
    Lotteries West  Top Trails WA Marketing Survey 2008 (Consultancy for Top Trails WA)


    D Lee 2008
    MU/ RCF The role of Community Ownership in Human Wildlife interaction


    K Hudson/ D Lee 2010
    School of Social Sciences and Humanities TEFI Values in Tourism


    D Lee 2012
    Lotteries West  Top Trails WA Marketing Survey 20014 (Consultancy for Top Trails WA)


    D Lee 20014



    Professional and community service

    • Executive Committee Member FACET, 2003-2015.
    • Nature Based Tourism Reference Group DEC 2004-2010.
    • Higher Education Accreditation Committee, 2006-2010
    • STCRC Network Coordinator WA, 2004-2007.
    • STCRC Publishing Committee, Sub Editor, 2004-2007.
    • WA Minister’s Group for accrediting private institutions in Tourism Higher Education.  2008-2011.
    • 2002 Conference organizingCAUTHE
    • 2008 Conference organizing team ApacChrie
    • 2014 Conference organizing team International Tourism Scholars Association

    Doctoral and masters supervisions

    Completed Thesis
    • David Waayers PhD (2010). A Holistic approach to planning for wildlife tourism. A case study of marine turtle tourism and conservation in the Ningaloo Region, Western Australia.
    • Yohei Okamoto MPhil (Submitted 2016). The Raison d’être of Tourism Education: Ontological, Epistemological and Ideological Comparison between the Higher Education and Vocational Education and Training Tourism Programs in Australia.

    Under Supervision

    • Afamefuna Elysi (PhD Candidate).The socio-cultural issues in regional tourism planning and development: lessons from Nigeria. 
    • Barkathunnisha Abu Bakar (PhD Candidate). Education for Sustainability (Efs), spiritual and critical pedagogy.
    • Sharee Bauld (PhD Candidate). Is tourism an effective development objective? An analysis of the effectiveness of donor-funded tourism aid strategies in developing countries.
    • Alan Briggs (PhD Candidate). Social Contribution of Geoparks to Tourism in Rural Communities in Western Australia.
    • Anna Gstaettner (PhD Candidate). Does context matter? Exploring responsibility-sharing in unguided nature-based tourism and recreation in Australia.
    • Huy Nguyen (PhD Candidate). Impact of Resident Empowerment on Attitudes and Participation in Sustainable Tourism Development, Case Study in Sapa, Vietnam.



    • Li, C., Lee, D., Newsome, D., Bihu, W., (2017),The analysis of tourists' involvement in regard to dolphin interactions at the Dolphine Discovery Centre, Bunbury, Western Australia,In: Advances in Hospitality and Tourism. Wilderness of Wildlife Tourism, Apple Academic Press, Inc., pages 87 to 112.
    • Smith, A., Lee, D., Newsome, D., Stoeckl, N., (2006),Production and Consumption of Wildlife Icons: Dolphin Tourism at Monkey Mia, Western Australia,In: Tourism Consumption and Representation: Narratives of Place and Self, CAB International, pages 113 to 139.
    • Lee, D., Chok, S., (2005),Developing a Tourism System: A Tapestry of Knowledge,In: Regional tourism cases. Innovation in regional tourism, Common Ground Publishing, pages 41 to 51.


    • Gstaettner, A., Kobryn, H., Rodger, K., Phillips, M., Lee, D., (2019), Monitoring visitor injury in protected areas - analysis of incident reporting in two Western Australian parks, Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism, 25, Mar 2019, pages 143 - 157.
    • Abu Bakar, B., Lee, D., Price, A., Wilson, E., (2018), Towards a spirituality based platform in tourism higher education, Current Issues in Tourism, Online Jan 2018, , pages -.
    • Patroni, J., Day, A., Lee, D., Chan, J., Kerr, D., Newsome, D., Simpson, G., (2018), LOOKING FOR EVIDENCE THAT PLACE OF RESIDENCE INFLUENCED VISITOR ATTITUDES TO FEEDING WILD DOLPHINS, Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 24, 1, pages 87 - 105.
    • Gstaettner, A., Rodgers, K., Lee, D., (2017), Visitor perspectives of risk management in a natural tourism setting: An application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour, Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism, 19 (online), 2017, pages 1 - 10.
    • Abu Bakar, B., Lee, D., Price, A., (2017), Transcending towards a spirituality-based platform in tourism higher education: A contemplation of the pedagogical implications, Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sports & Tourism Education, 21, Part B, November 2017, pages 174 - 184.
    • Gstaettner, A., Lee, D., Rodger, K., (2016), The concept of risk in nature-based tourism and recreation - a systematic literature review, Current Issues in Tourism, 21, 15, pages 1784 - 1809.
    • Smith, L., Newsome, D., Lee, D., (2014), The development of an interpretive experience to foster positive tourist encounters and manage turtle tourism in Northwest Western Australia: implications for further research, Tourism in Marine Environments: an interdisciplinary journal, 10, 1/2, pages 31 - 48.
    • Waayers, D., Lee, D., Newsome, D., (2012), Exploring the nature of stakeholder collaboration: a case study of marine turtle tourism in the Ningaloo region, Western Australia, Current Issues in Tourism, 15, 7, pages 673 - 692.
    • Pfueller, S., Lee, D., Laing, J., (2011), Tourism partnerships in protected areas: Exploring contributions to sustainability, Environmental Management, 48, 4, pages 734 - 749.
    • Wegner, A., Lee, D., Weiler, B., (2010), Important 'ingredients' for successful tourism/protected area partnerships: partners' policy recommendations, The Service Industries Journal, 30, 10, pages 1643 - 1650.
    • Laing, J., Lee, D., Moore, S., Wegner, A., Weiler, B., (2009), Advancing conceptual understanding of partnerships between protected area agencies and the tourism industry: A postdisciplinary and multi-theoretical approach, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 17, 2, pages 207 - 229.
    • Northcote, J., Lee, D., Chok, S., Wegner, A., (2008), An email-based Delphi approach to Tourism Program evaluation: involving stakeholders in research design, Current Issues in Tourism, 11, 3, pages 269 - 279.
    • Lee, D., Hudson, K., (2008), Biodiversity and Tourism: A Valuable Relationship, Social Alternatives, 28, 3, pages 39 - 43.
    • Waayers, D., Newsome, D., Lee, D., (2006), Observations of non-compliance behaviour by tourists to a voluntary code of conduct: A pilot study of turtle tourism in the Exmouth Region, Western Australia, Journal of Ecotourism, 5, 3, pages 211 - 222.
    • Stoeckl, N., Smith, A., Newsome, D., Lee, D., (2005), Regional economic dependence on iconic wildlife tourism: Case studies of Monkey Mia and Hervey Bay, Journal of Tourism Studies, The, 16, 1, pages 69 - 81.
    • Lee, D., Pearce, P., (2002), Community attitudes to the acceptability of user fees in natural settings, Tourism and Hospitality Research. The Surrey Quarterly Review, 4, 2, pages 158 - 173.
    • Lee, D., (2001), Strategic Managment of the Geographe Wine Region., Tourism and Hospitality Research. The Surrey Quarterly Review, 26, 2, pages 158 - 174.
    • Lee, D., (2000), Best Practice Dolphin/Tourism Interaction Management, Touristics, 16, 1, pages 15 - 18.
    • Lee, D., (2000), Japanese tourists' experience of the natural environments in North QLD region - Great Barrier Reef Experience, Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 9, 1-Feb, pages 93 - 114.


    • Gstaettner, A., Phillips, M., Kobryn, H., Rodger, K., Lee, D., (2018),Making use of visitor incident data in Karijini National Park: A Western Australian case study,In: The 9th International Conference on Monitoring and Management of Visitors in Recreational Protected Areas (MMV9).
    • Li, C., Lee, D., Wu, B., Morrison, A., (2014),Tourist perception of risk: Chengdu research base for giant panda breeding (CRBGPB),In: Cauthe Conference 2014.
    • Moore, S., Wegner, A., Lee, D., Weiler, B., Laing, J., Lockwood, M., Croy, G., Macbeth, J., (2009),Protected area - Tourism partnerships: What makes them tick?,In: Australian Protected Area Congress: Protected Areas in the Century of Change.


    • Gstaettner, A., Rodger, K.  & Lee, D. (2017). Visitor perspectives of risk management in a natural tourism setting:  An application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour.  Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism. 19, 1-10.
    • Gstaettner, A. Lee, D. & Rodgers, K. (2016).  The concept of Risk in nature-based Tourism and Recreation:  A systematic literature review.  Current Issues in Tourism. 0 (0), 1-26.  DOI: 10.1080/13683500.2016.1244174
    • Abu Bakar, B., Lee, D. & Price, A.  (2016). Transcending towards a spirituality-based platform in tourism higher education:  A contemplation of the pedagogical implications.  Journal of Hospitality, Sport, Leisure and Tourism Education. 0 (0), 1-11.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhlste.2016.11.003