Dr Hamid Laga
PhD in Computer Science

Associate Professor

About me

I received the M.Sc (2003) and PhD (2006) degrees in Computer Science from Tokyo Institute of Technology in the area of 3D shape analysis and retrieval. Prior to Joining Murdoch University, I worked as a senior research fellow at the Phenomics and Bioinformatics (PBRC) of the University of South Australia. I have also served as the deputy director of the PBRC. Prior to that I was Associate Professor at the Institut Telecom, Telecom Lille1 in France (2010-2012), Assistant Professor at Tokyo Institute of Technology (2006-2010), and as a fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) at Nara Institute of Science and Technology (2006).

My research interests span various fields of computer vision, computer graphics, and image-based cereal plant phenotyping. I received the Best Paper Award at the IEEE International Conference on Shape Modeling (2006), the Best Paper Award at NICOGRAPH Paper Context (2007), the International Paper Grand Prix (Best Paper Award) by the Japan Society of Art and Science (2008), and the APRS/IAPR Best Paper Prize at the IEEE International Conference on Digital Image Computing, Techniques and Applications (DICTA) 2012.

I have experience in teaching subjects across the disciplines of computer science, information technology and applied mathematics.

We are actively looking for PhD students. Murdoch University offers scholarships for domestic  as well as for  international students. If interested, send me an email with a summary of your motivation and your most recent CV. Also, check these websites (domesticinternational) for more information about scholarships that are available and about the application process and deadlines. 

For more details about my research activities and the type of projects a graduate student would expect to do with me, please visit my up-to-date website.

Teaching area

Currently I am teaching Computer Graphics.

I have experience in teaching:

  • Mathematics for engineers,
  • Discrete mathematics,
  • C/C++ programming
  • Markov chains and graph theory
  • Image processing
  • Computer graphics
I have also organized and given advanced tutorials at leading international conferences such as Eurographics and the International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR).

Research areas

My research background is in the field of computer graphics and computer vision. I am particularly interested in developing mathematical / statistical models that describe the shape of 3D objects and how the shape of 3D objects varies across a population. This is a fundamental problem and a building block to many applications in biology, medical imaging, and computer graphics.  The mathematical models are then used for (1) correspondence and registration, (2) 3D modelling, synthesis and animation, and (3) 3D reconstruction.

Since 2012, I am also working on image processing techniques for image-based phenotyping of cereal plants grown in different environments ranging from controlled ones (e.g. laboratory experiments) to large fields as done by farmers and breeders. We developed expertise using various types of sensors and platforms ranging from hand-held cameras to sensors mounted on drones.  

Current projects

Image-based plant phenotyping:

  • ARC Linkage Grant LP150100055
    Co-variant Analysis and Statistical Modelling for Improved Crop Yield.
    SJ Miklavcic, Hamid Laga, Jinhai Cai, Haydn Kuchel.
    2.  
  • ARC Linkage Grant LP140100347
    Field and quasi-field phenotyping for the quantitative characterisation of wheat yield under stress.
    SJ Miklavcic, P Langridge, J Cai, Hamid Laga, A Jacobs, S Haefele, RA Burton, BL Duggan, JL Rosichan.
Health and well-being
  • Automated Classification of Sedentary Behaviours for Life-Style Monitoring.
    UniSA’s Research Themes Investment Schemes.
    Hamid Laga, Jinhai Cai, Francois Fraysse, Tina Hurst, Stanley J. Miklavcic, Tomothy Olds, Alex Rowlands.

 

Awards and grants

ARC Grants (Australia)

  • ARC Linkage Grant LP150100055
    Co-variant Analysis and Statistical Modelling for Improved Crop Yield.
    SJ Miklavcic, Hamid Laga, Jinhai Cai, Haydn Kuchel.2.
  • ARC Linkage Grant LP140100347
    Field and quasi-field phenotyping for the quantitative characterisation of wheat yield under stress.
    SJ Miklavcic, P Langridge, J Cai, Hamid Laga, A Jacobs, S Haefele, RA Burton, BL Duggan, JL Rosichan.
Internal grants
  • Automated Classification of Sedentary Behaviours for Life-Style Monitoring.
    UniSA’s Research Themes Investment Schemes.
    Hamid Laga, Jinhai Cai, Francois Fraysse, Tina Hurst, Stanley J. Miklavcic, Tomothy Olds, Alex Rowlands.

Other competitive grants (while employed in Japan)

  • Fellowship: Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)
    2006 – 2008.
  • Center of Excellence Ubiquitous Networked Media Computing, Nara Institute of Science & Technology, Japan (2006).
    People Detection and Tracking using Networks of Sparsely Distributed Cameras.
    CIs: Sofiane Yous, Abdel-Aziz Khiat, Hamid Laga.
  • Global Edge Institute’s startup fund, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST).
    3D Shape Analysis, Classification, Recognition and Retrieval (2006 – 2008)
    CIs: Hamid Laga
  • Data-driven 3D scene reconstruction and completion.
    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), Kakenhi Wakate-B No. 21700096 (2009-2012)
    CIs: Hamid Laga.
Awards
  1. Best presentation award by my PhD student (Josh Chopin) at MODSIM2013.
  2. Best Paper Prize at the IEEE International Conference on Digital Image Computing: Techniques and Applications (DICTA), awarded by the International Association of Pattern Recognition (IAPR) and the Australian Pattern Recognition Society (APRS) in 2012.
  3. International Paper Grand Prix, Two-years best computer graphics paper award, the Society of Art and Science Japan, March 2008.
  4. Best Paper Award at the 23rd NICCOGRAPH Paper Contest, November 2007.
  5. Best Paper Award at the IEEE International Conference on Shape Modeling and Applications, June 2006.

Publications

Books

  • Jermyn, I., Kurtek, S., Laga, H., Srivastava, A., (2017),Elastic Shape Analysis of Three-Dimensional Objects,Morgan & Claypool.

Journals

  • Laga, H., Tabia, H., (2017), Modeling and Exploring Co-variations in Geometry and Configuration of Man-made 3D Shape Families, Computer Graphics Forum, 36, 5, pages 13 - 25.
  • Chopin, J., Laga, H., Miklavcic, S., (2017), A new method for accurate, high-throughput volume estimation from three 2D projective images, International Journal of Food Properties, 20, 10, pages 2344 - 2357.
  • Chopin, J., Laga, H., Miklavcic, S., (2016), The Influence of Object Shape on the Convergence of Active Contour Models for Image Segmentation, The Computer Journal, 59, 5, pages 603 - 615.
  • Kovalchuk, N., Laga, H., Cai, J., Kumar, P., Parent, B., Lu, Z., Miklavcic, S., Haefele, S., (2016), Phenotyping of plants in competitive but controlled environments: a study of drought response in transgenic wheat, Functional Plant Biology: an international journal of plant function, , , pages 1 - 12.
  • Chopin, J., Laga, H., Miklavcic, S., (2016), A Hybrid Approach for Improving Image Segmentation: Application to Phenotyping of Wheat Leaves, PLoS One, 11, 12, pages e0168496 -.
  • Laga, H., Kurtek, S., Srivastava, A., Miklavcic, S., (2014), Landmark-free statistical analysis of the shape of plant leaves, Journal of Theoretical Biology, 363, , pages 41 - 52.

Conference

  • Joshi, S., Xie, Q., Kurtek, S., Srivastava, A., Laga, H., (2016),Surface Shape Morphometry for Hippocampal Modeling in Alzheimer's Disease,In: Digital Image Computing Techniques and Applications.

Book Chapters (2)

2. Sebastian Kurtek, Ian H. Jermyn, Qian Xie, Eric Klassen, Hamid Laga. Elastic Shape Analysis of Surfaces and Images. In Riemannian Computing and Statistical Inferences in Computer Vision, Chapter 10. Edited by: Pavan K. Turaga and Anuj Srivastava (accepted on Jan 2015).

1. Hamid Laga. 3D Shape Classification and Retrieval Using Heterogenous Features and Supervised Learning. In Machine Learning, Chapter 15, pp. 305-324. ISBN 978-953-7619-56-1, Hard cover, 450 pages, Edited by: Abdelhamid Mellouk and Abdennacer Chebira, Publisher: IN-TECH, January 2009.

Journal Articles (23)

23. Josh Chopin, Hamid Laga, Stanley J. Miklavcic. Optimal parameter selection for active contour models. The Computer Journal (ARC ERA A*, accepted in Oct 2015).

22. Ulrich Eck, Frieder Pankratz, Gudrun Klinker, Chris Sandor, Hamid Laga. Comprehensive Workspace Calibration for Visuo-Haptic Augmented Reality. IEEE transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics (TVCG) 2015 (ARC ERA A).

21. Josh Chopin, Hamid Laga, and Stanley J. Miklavcic. RootAnalyzer: a cross-section image analysis tool for automated characterization of root cells and tissues. PLOS ONE, 2015 (ARC ERA A, IF3.5).

20. Hedi Tabia and Hamid Laga. Covariance-based Descriptors for efficient 3D shape matching, retrieval and classification. IEEE Transactions on Multimedia (ARC ERA A, IF1.9).

19. Vy Nguyen, Delphine Fleury, Andy Timmins, Hamid Laga, Matt Hayden, Diane Mather, Takashi Okada. Addition of rye chromosome 4R to wheat increases anther length and the pollen grain number. Theoretical and Applied Genetics – International Journal of Plant Breeding and Genetics (Springer). 128 (5), pp. 1-12, 2015 (ARC ERA A, IF3.5).

18. Anatoli Torokhti, Phil Howlett and Hamid Laga. Estimation of stochastic signals under partially missing information. Signal Processing Journal, Elsevier. Vol. 111, pp. 199-209, 2015 (IF 2.238, ARC ERA A).

17. Anatoli Torokhti, Phil Howlett and Hamid Laga. Estimation of large sets of stochastic signals: the case of sparse sampling. In Sampling Theory in Signal and Image Processing. Vol 13, Issue 3, 2014.

16. Hamid Laga, Sebastian Kurtek, Anuj Srivastava and Stanley J. Miklavcic. Landmark-free Statistical Analysis of the Shape of Plant Leaves. Journal of Theoretical Biology. Volume 363, pp. 41-52, 2014. (IF2.3, ARC ERA A*).

15. Sebastian Kurtek, Anuj Srivastava, Eric Klassen, and Hamid Laga. Landmark-Guided Elastic Shape Analysis of Spherically-Parameterized Surfaces. Computer Graphics Forum (Proceedings of Eurographics 2013). 32(2), pp. 429-438, 2013.

14. Hamid Laga, Michela Mortara, and Michela Spagnuolo. Geometry and Context for Semantic Correspondences and Functionality Recognition in Manmade 3D Shapes. ACM Transactions on Graphics (presented at Siggraph 2014), 32(5), article 150, 2013 (IF3.7, ARC ERA A*).

13. Luis R. Sapaico, Hamid Laga, and Masayuki Nakajima. Detection of Tongue Protrusion Gestures from Videos. IEICE Transactions on Information and Systems, Vol.E94-D, No.8, pp.1671-1682, 2011.

12. Toshitaka Amaoka, Hamid Laga, and Masayuki Nakajima. Personal Space Modeling for Human-Computer Interaction. In the International Journal of Entertainment Computing (Elsevier), 2(4), pp. 245-261, 2011.

11. Hamid Laga. Data-Driven Approach for Automatic Orientation of 3D Shapes. The Visual Computer Journal, Springer, Vol. 27, No. 11, pp. 977-989, 2011.

10. Ning Xie, Hamid Laga, Suguru Saito, and Masayuki Nakajima, “Contour-driven Sumi-e rendering of real photos”, Computer and Graphics, An International Journal of Systems and Applications in Computer Graphics (Elsevier), Special Issue of NPAR2010, Vol.35, Issue 1, pp.122-134, 2011.

9. Toshitaka Amaoka, Hamid Laga, S. Saito, and Masayuki Nakajima, “Collective Body: Interactive art using 3D Scanner Technology”. The Journal of the Society for Art and Science, 8(4), pp.151-159, 2009.

8. Hamid Laga and Hiroki Takahashi. CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture). In the Journal of the Institute of Image Information and Television Engineers (ITE), Vol. 62, No. 4, pp. 64-69, 2009.

7. Hamid Laga and Hiroki Takahashi, “3D Model Databases and Tools”, in the Journal of the Institute of Image Information and Television Engineers (ITE), Vol. 63, No. 2, pp.52-56, 2009 (paper in Japanese).

6. Hamid Laga and Masayuki Nakajima. Supervised Learning of Salient 2D Views of 3D Models. The Journal of the Society for Art and Science, Vol. 7, No.4, pp.124-131, 2008.

5. Hamid Laga, Masayuki Nakajima, Kunihiro Chihara. Discriminative Spherical Wavelet Features for Content-based 3D Model Retrieval. International Journal on Shape Modeling, Vol.13, No.1, pp. 51-72, 2007 (Best Paper Award at IEEE International Conference on Shape Modeling and Applications 2006).

4. Hamid Laga, Hiroki Takahashi, Masayuki Nakajima. Spherical Parameterization and Geometry Image-based 3D Shape Similarity Estimation. The Visual Computer Journal, Vol.22, issue 5, pp. 324 – 331, May 2006.

3. Hamid Laga, Takahashi Hiroki, and Nakajima Masayuki. Scale-Space Processing of Point-Sampled Geometry for Efficient 3D Object Segmentation. IEICE Transactions on Information and Systems, E88-D(5), pp. 963-970, 2005.

2. Hamid Laga, Romanos Piperakis, Hiroki Takahashi, Masayuki Nakajima. Radial Basis Function Based Approach for Polygon-free Reconstruction and Representation of 3D Objects from Range Data. The Journal of the Institute of Image Information and Television Engineers, 57(11), pp.1526-1533, 2003.

1. Achour Karim; Zenati Nadia, and Hamid Laga. Contribution to Image and Contours Restoration. Journal of Real-Time Imaging, Academic Press, Vol. 7, No 4, pp.315-326, August 2001.

Refereed Conference proceedings (44)

44. Hamid Laga, Fahimeh Shahinnia, and Delphine Fleury. Image-based Plant Stomata Phenotyping. In International Conference on Control, Automation, Robotics and Computer Vision (ICARCV), pp. 217-122, 2014.

43. Ulrich Eck, Frieder Pankratz, Gudrun Klinker, Chris Sandor, Hamid Laga. Comprehensive Workspace Calibration for Visuo-Haptic Augmented Reality. In International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality, pp. 123 – 128,  2014. (Nominated for best short paper award).

42. Hedi Tabia, Hamid Laga, David Picard, and Philippe-Henry Gosselin. Covariance Descriptors for 3D Shape Matching and Retrieval. IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), pp. 4185 – 4192, 2014 (CORE/ERA A conference, acceptance rate is 3.5%).

41. Sebastian Kurtek, Mo Shen, and Hamid Laga. Elastic Reflection Symmetry Based Shape Descriptors. IEEE Winter Conference on Applications of Computer Vision WACV2014, pp. 293-300, 2014.

40. Ulrich Eck, Christian Sandor and Hamid Laga. Visuo-Haptic Augmented Reality Runtime Environment for Medical Training. IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR), Doctoral Consortium, pp. 1-4, 2013.

39. Neven A. M. ElSayed, Christian Sandor, Hamid Laga. Visual Analytics in Augmented Reality. International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR), Doctoral Consortium, pp. 1-4, 2013.

38. Hedi Tabia, David Picard, Hamid Laga, Philippe-Henry Gosselin. Fast Approximation of Distance Between Elastic Curves using Kernels. British Machine Vision Conference, pp. 17-24, 2013 (Acceptance rate 30%).

37. Hamid Laga and Stanley J. Miklavcic. Curve-based Stereo Matching for 3D Modeling of Plants. The International Congress on Modelling and Simulation (MODSIM), pp. 1-7, 2013.

36. Joshua Chopin, Stanley J. Miklavcic, Hamid Laga. Active Contour Models for Automated Plant Phenotypic Analysis. The International Congress on Modelling and Simulation (MODSIM), pp. 1-7, 2013.

35. Hamid Laga, Sebastian Kurtek, Anuj Srivastava, Stanley J. Miklavcic. Statistical Shape Models of Plant Leaves. International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP), pp. 3503-3507, 2013.

34. Hedi Tabia, David Picard, Hamid Laga, Philippe-Henry Gosselin. 3D Shape Similarity Computing Using Vectors of Locally Aggregated Tensors. International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP), pp. 2694 – 2698, 2013.

33. Anatoli Torokhti, Phil Howlett, and Hamid Laga. Estimation of large data sets on the basis of sparse sampling. Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Sampling Theory and Applications, pp.388-391, 2013.

32. Anatoli Torokhti, Phil Howlett, and Hamid Laga.  Filtering of Large Signal Sets: an Almost Blind Case. The Eighth International Multi-Conference on Computing in Global Information Technology ICCGI, pp. 101-105, 2013.

31. Hedi Tabia, David Picard, Hamid Laga, Philippe-Henri Gosselin. Compact Vectors of Locally Aggregated Tensors for 3D Shape Retrieval. Eurographics Workshop on 3D Object Retrieval (3DOR), pp. 17-24, 2013.

30. Hamid Laga. Graspable Parts Recognition in Manmade 3D Shapes. The 11th Asian Conference on Computer Vision ACCV. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp. 552-564, 2012 (Acceptance rate 3.5%).

29. Hamid Laga, Sebastian Kurtek, Anuj Srivastava, Mahmood Golzarian, and Stanley J. Miklavcic. A Riemannian Elastic Metric for Shape-based Plant Leaf Classification. IEEE International Conference on Digital Image Computing (DICTA), pp. 1-7, 2012 (BEST PAPER AWARD).

28. Ning Xie, Hamid Laga, and Masayuki Nakajima. A Demo of iR2s Software: Interactive Oriental Ink Painting Tool. In Nicograph International 2010.

27. Junyoung Park, Hamid Laga, and Masayuki Nakajima. Multi-view Shape Reconstruction in CAVE System. In Nicograph International 2010.

26. Ning Xie, Hamid Laga, Suguru Saito, and Masayuki Nakajima. iR2S: Interactive Real Photo to Sumi-e. International symposium on non-photo realistic rendering an animation (NPAR2010), pp.63-70, 2010.

25. Hamid Laga. Semantics-Driven Approach for Automatic Selection of Best Views of 3D Shapes. In the 3rd Eurographics Workshop on 3D Object Retrieval (3DOR’2010), pp.15-22, 2010.

24. Xie Ning, Hamid Laga, Suguru Saito, and Masayuki Nakajima. Contour-driven Brush Stroke Synthesis. ACM Siggraph Asia, Sketches and Applications, pp. 6:1-6:1, 2009.

23. Luis Ricardo Sapaico, Hamid Laga, and Masayuki Nakajima. The Use of Tongue Protrusion Gestures for Video-based Communication. In the IEEE International Workshop on Human-Computer Interaction (HCI2009), an ICCV2009 Workshop, pp. 2017-2024, 2009.

22. Hamid Laga and Toshitaka Amaoka. Modeling the Spatial Behavior of Virtual Agents in Groups for Non-verbal Communication in Virtual Worlds. International Universal Communication Symposium, pp.154-159, 2009.

21. Toshitaka Amaoka, Hamid Laga, and Masayuki Nakajima. Modeling the Personal Space of Virtual Agents for Behavior Simulation. The IEEE International Conference on Cyber Worlds, pp. 364-370, 2009.

20. Toshitaka Amaoka, Hamid Laga, Suguru Saito, and Masayuki Nakajima. Personal Space Modeling for Human-Computer Interaction. In the proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Entertainment Computing ICEC’2009, pp 60-72, Sept. 2009.

19. Luis R.Sapaico, Hamid Laga, and Masayuki Nakajima. Mouth Region Localization based on Gabor Features and Active Appearance Models. In NICOGRAPH International, pp. 141-146, 2009.

18. Ning Xie, Suguru Saito, Hamid Laga, and Masayuki Nakajima. Shape-driven Oriental Brush Stroke Synthesis. In NICOGRAPH International, pp. 1 – 6, 2009.

17. Jacob Montiel, Hamid Laga, and Masayuki Nakajima. Prototype-based Intra-class Pose Recognition of Partial 3D Scans. In NICOGRAPH International, pp. 1 – 6, 2009.

16. Toshitaka Amaoka, Hamid Laga, Suguru Saito, Masayuki Nakajima. Personal Space-based modeling of relationships between people for new Human-Computer interaction. In the International Workshop on Advanced Imaging Techniques (IWAIT), pp. 1-5, 2009.

15. Sofiane Yous, Hamid Laga, Kunihiro Chihara. People Detection and Tracking with World-Z map from a Single Stereo Camera. In the 8th International Workshop on Visual Surveillance, an ECCV Workshop, pp. 1-8, 2008.

14. Hamid Laga and Masayuki Nakajima. Supervised Learning of Similarity Measures for Content-based 3D Model Retrieval. In The 3rd International Conference on Large Scale Knowledge Resources (LKR), Lecture notes in Computer Science (Springer), Vol. 4938, pp.210-225, March 2008.

13. Sofiane Yous, Hamid Laga, Kunihiro Chihara. GPU-based Shape from Silhouettes. The 5th ACM International Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques in Australasia and South East Asia GRAPHITE 2007, Perth – Australia, pp.71-77, Nov. 2007.

12. Hamid Laga and Masayuki Nakajima. A Boosting Approach to Content-based 3D Model Retrieval. In the 5th International Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques in Australasia and South East Asia GRAPHITE 2007, Perth – Australia, pp. 227-234, Nov. 2007.

11. Hamid Laga and Masayuki Nakajima. Statistical Spherical Wavelet Moments for Content-based 3D Model Retrieval. Computer Graphics International (CGI 2007), RJ-Brazil, pp.47-54, May 2007.

10. Hamid Laga, Kunihiro Chihara, and Masayuki Nakajima. 3D model retrieval using spherical extent functions and wavelet descriptors. SHREC2006: 3D Model Retrieval Evaluation Contest UUCS-2006-030, pp28-31, Utrecht University, 2006.

9. Hamid Laga, Hiroki Takahashi, Masayuki Nakajima. Spherical Wavelet Descriptors for Content-based 3D Model Retrieval. IEEE International Conference on Shape Modeling and Applications (SMI2006), Sendai, Japan, pp75-85, June 2006 (Best Paper Award).

8. Hamid Laga, Hiroki Takahashi, Masayuki Nakajima. Spherical Wavelet Descriptors for Content-based 3D Model Retrieval. International Workshop on Advanced Imaging Techniques (IWAIT), pp. 1 – 6, 2006.

7. Hamid Laga, Hiroki Takahashi, and Masayuki Nakajima, Scale-space Framework for Efficient Segmentation of Point-sampled Geometry. International Workshop on Advanced Imaging Techniques (IWAIT), pp. 1 – 6, 2005.

6. Hamid Laga, Takahashi Hiroki & Nakajima Masayuki. Scale-Space Processing of Point-Sampled Geometry for Efficient 3D Object Segmentation. International Conference on Cyber worlds, Tokyo, Japan, pp.377-383, 2004.

5. Hamid Laga, Takahashi Hiroki and Nakajima Masayuki. Geometry Image Matching for Similarity Estimation of 3D Shapes. Computer Graphics International CGI2004, Greece, pp490-496, June 2004

4. Hamid Laga, Takahashi Hiroki and Nakajima Masayuki, Geometry Image based Similarity Estimation for 3D Model Retrieval, Nicograph International 2004, Taiwan, pp.133-138, May 2004.

3. Hamid Laga, Piperakis Romanos, Takahashi Hiroki and Nakajima Masayuki. A Radial Basis Function Based Approach for 3D Object Modeling and Reconstruction. International Workshop on Advanced Imaging Technique (IWAIT), pp.139-144, January 2003.

2. Karim Achour, Nadia Zenati,Hamid Laga, Contribution to Restoration of Degraded Scene Images, Conference Africaine sur la Recherche en Informatique et en Automatique CARI98, pp.523-532, 1998 (in French).

1. Karim Achour, Nadia Zenati,Hamid Laga and M. Belhocine: Contribution to Restoration of Degraded Images, SSCC’98 International Conference on Systems, Signals, Control, Computers, pp.22-24, Sept.1998.