Dr Jocelyn Armarego
PhD; MAppSci; GDip (Computing); GDip (Library Studies); BA

Senior Lecturer; Academic Chair PostGraduate Coursework

About me

I have been an academic teaching and researching in the areas of ICT and Software Engineering since the late 1980s. Prior to that I was working as a Software Engineer in industry.

I am currently Academic Chair of the ICT PostGraduate by Coursework programs. This means I evaluate applications and support students once they are enrolled, especially in terms of their program of study.

Teaching area

I base my teaching on the acceptance that each student will learn differently. The individual background each brings to the classroom will influence how the knowledge will be constructed.

It is my role to facilitate that process – I hope to achieve this by making the learning experience as authentic as possible – not just a series of facts that must be ‘known’, but

  • an assembling of concepts
  • strategies to use and evaluate those concepts and
  • experiences that model how those would be used within the discipline they/we belong.

Therefore my goal is to facilitate learning, not just to provide teaching in a subject area. It is important that the students develop skills that will enable them to keep on learning – this is vital in a discipline that is rapidly changing. It is also important that they see the material I present holistically – not just of value for its own sake, but placed in the context of the discipline and its needs.
The focus therefore in these units is on engaging students, on collaborative work (teacher/student as well as student/student), on strategies to problem solve, think critically and creatively and strategies for students to control their own learning and provide a challenge they will rise to.

Within the discipline of IT I am involved in teaching:

  • ICT 521 IT Professional Practice
  • ICT 508 IT Project Management
  • ICT 158 Introduction to Information Systems

and incidentally in

  • ICT 284 Systems Analysis & Design
  • BSC 203 Introduction to ICT Research Methods.

I have also taught

  • ICT 327  Management of IT Projects [no longer offered]
  • ICT107 Principles of Information Systems and Data Management
  • ICT105  Introduction to Information Technology

and a number of units in Software Engineering when the BE(SE) was offered by the School of Engineering.


Research areas

Research interests include:

Development of software systems, focussing on organisational aspects, encompassing:

  • Business and stakeholder analysis -  how we practice it; how we learn it.This research culminated in a PhD thesis (see below)
  • Lightweight Formal Methods for requirements - specifically Z/Object Z. This research led to a Master dissertation
  • Frameworks and models for managing projects. This included work with my HRD students
  • Teamwork environments - how we maximise productivity
    • Creative teams
    • Global teams
    • Virtual teams

    This work has included collaboration with industry.

Other areas include:

  • Technology-enhanced learning
  • Psychology of Learning – learning styles and approaches to learning
  • Women in non-traditional disciplines/ICT impact on women
  • Alignment: Information Systems/IT and Business Strategy

More information on these can be found under publications.

In 2007 I completed myPhD in the area of Requirements Engineering Education. This document is also available here

Current projects

Global IT development: the challenge of “Team Jell’

Advances in many areas of the industry, including the technology, work processes
and business models have driven the development of IT as a global business. Today, distributed, multi-site software production and outsourcing has a high degree of visibility in the software development space: the large sums spend in software development, the inconsistent success and the increasing global dependency on software highlight the importance of determining characteristics of successful endeavours. Distribution enables organisations to leverage their resources, improve time-to-market and capitalise on proximity to market, but these opportunities come with new challenges – figures indicating 90 % of large companies are conducting global projects.

A variety of factors affect the performance of the distributed team. Among the inputs factors, two categories are considered to influence the interpersonal transactions among team members: team characteristics (eg homogeneity, cohesion, norms) and personal characteristics (eg personal skills, attitudes, behaviours). Intragroup factors include
communication, cooperation and conflict. These are influenced by the input factors
and directly affect/moderate team performance.

While a growing body of research has demonstrated that a social network is a central
element in collaborative environments (eg for obtaining information, learning how to work  and solving complex tasks), relatively little research has been conducted to explicitly examine what factors influence the creation of different social networks, why some members occupy structurally advantageous positions than others, or how such emergent
network properties (ie structural elements in a team) influence performance and
outcomes in distributed settings.

The way individuals create social capital – or the way they are situated in social networks – should significantly influence the acquisition, construction, and exchange of knowledge. Therefore, in knowledge intensive work, investigating the information environment
that helps team members solve increasingly complex and often ambiguous problems
holds significant performance implications.

This project involves an assessment of the relational characteristics of a distributed team, and subsequently an analysis of disposition towards knowledge sharing/transfer within the team. Organisational case studies will lead to the development of best practices for distributed/virtual team development, recommend organisational strategies for team structures, and propose alternatives for the implementation of the new practices and methods.


Professional and community service

Discipline/Professional Service (ongoing)

  • Committee member WA Panel Engineers Australia College of Information, Telecommunications, and Electronics Engineering (ITEE College)
  • Committee member National College Board Engineers Australia College of Information, Telecommunications, and Electronics Engineering (ITEE College)
  • Committee member Engineers Australia National Committee on Software Engineering (NCSWE)
  • Committee member Engineers Australia National Committee on Women in Engineering (NCWIE)
  • Chair & Engineers Australia representative ASWEC (Australian Software Engineering Conference) Steering Committee
  • Committee member CSEE&T (Conference on Software Engineering Education & Training) Steering Committee
  • Committee member AWRE (Australian Workshop on Requirements Engineering) Steering Committee

Doctoral and masters supervisions


HDR students


Kham Sila Ahmad (PhD)

Factors of Mobile-assisted Language Learning (MaLL) for Integration into Non-Formal Learning Environment to support Refugee Women’s Vocabulary Acquisition

The aim of this research is to investigate the factors of MaLL that can be integrated into a non-formal learning environment to support refugee women’s language learning, paying particular attention to vocabulary acquisition. The focus is on a non-formal learning environment because, though non-accredited, learning programs  provided by community-based organisations and churches  fulfil the learning needs of adult learners who, due to a variety of reasons, do not participate in formal learning and schooling.  This research will specifically address refugee and migrant  women’s language learning to explore the effects of enriching their learning with the use of mobile technologies.

Mona Gabriel-Seow (DIT)

Alignment of Business Strategies and Information System Processes in Large Organisations

Alignment between the strategic business directions of an organisation and the technology and systems used to support the business is investigated. The premise is that it is beneficial for organisations to have close alignment between their IT systems and processes and the directions the business is taking on the basis that to fully engage in the required business and to gain the outcomes expected, the IT systems and processes are required to support the business strategies to be taken.

We are looking at several scenarios with respect to organisations and/or business units within the same organisation where there is mismatch of the systems and through to businesses where there is deliberate mechanisms and strategies to keep the two aligned.

There are four approaches to alignment identified. Each approach looks at the issues within the literature that identify the strengths and weaknesses of the approach and the research issues being investigated. Within each of these approaches one or two case studies investigate in detail the different scenarios. A total of six case studies investigate the four approaches.

Saeed Shariati (PhD)

The role of ICT on satisfactory integration of Iranian refugees

The aim of the study is to identify the issues of integration and investigate whether the use of ICT by Iranians refugees in Australia assists them to successful settlement in Australia. The study will also look into the effects of the diaspora formation that results in refugees’ unique social networking and the relationships they create. This connection has been boosted by the use of technology, and specifically ICT, in the form of email, social media, and the Internet search of information, with a focus on both integration and the maintenance of ties with the homeland.


Valerie Maxville (PhD) – ECU

Strategies for The Intelligent Selection of Components

Choosing the best software from what is available in the marketplace is a difficult decision. Building software systems that include bought software components is even more of a problem, as the process to select components needs to be repeatable, usable, flexible and automated. This researchprovides a process that incorporates a range of strategies to support software selection. Central to the work is the use of a suite of machine learning classifiers to shortlist candidate components. The work has potential to impact professional practice in the way software is characterised, selected, and how evaluations are carried out.

Zebunessa Laizu (PhD)

Role of Information Communication and Technology (ICT): Women Empowerment in Rural Bangladesh

In the context of rural Bangladesh, this research examined women’s empowerment through the use of ICT tools, such as mobile phones, computers and the internet, provided by Non-Government Organizations (NGOs). The research investigated five dimensions of women’s empowerment – material, cognitive, perceptual, relational and technological – through semi-structured interviews, and analysed data qualitatively. The results indicate that the context of the villages, culture, awareness, maturity and engagement with ICT impacted the process of women’s empowerment.

Abubakar Bello (DIT)

A Framework for Investigating and Understanding How Effective Information Security and Privacy Can Be Achieved In “Bring Your Own Device (BYOD)” Environments

The “Bring your own device (BYOD)” to workplace concept is an entity under the consumerisation of information technology (IT), which simply refers to private or personally owned information technology resources, such as computer hardware devices, or software that are used for business purposes.  The initial review on the problems with BYOD identified a knowledge gap in the security and privacy control/management mechanisms of protecting confidential data in BYOD environments – although more and more organisations are adopting and allowing BYOD, theyare failing to understand or tend to ignore the security and privacy challenges associated with its practice.

In order to address this knowledge gap , the research aims to develop a framework for assessing, understanding, and controlling the security and privacy issues and risks associated with BYOD.

Bruce Hilliard (PhD)

Optimising comprehension and shaping impressions

This research project is identifying how changes in the way things are displayed can affect a viewer’s comprehension and impressions. The results of this research may be of substantial assistance in improving the presentation of information in fields as diverse as business, web design, and education. For example, the findings may be used to make PowerPoint® presentations easier to understand, which can make student learning easier.

Pattama Kanavittaya (DIT)

The alignment between business strategy and agile software development

The aim to this project is to examine whether organisations which apply agile software development can align their business strategy with their IT/IS strategy . Given that organisations deal with uncertainty and the pressure of time to market, it is worthy to note that flexible software development cycles enable a better fit, and adapted to dynamic IT/IS environments, more efficiently. The findings indicate that agile methods, which embed social interaction, also reflect the social dimensions of strategic alignment, especially communication, connection between IT/IS and business executives, and shared domain knowledge. This is to say that implementation of agile methods create a conductive environment for alignment at the social level, thus minimising gaps and facilitating the alignment process.

Coursework Masters Project supervision


Frode Monsson
The AAPEN Cluster Project

AAPEN (Adaptive Array of Power Efficient Nodes) attempts to construct a flexible and adaptable clustering platform using commodity hardware. The first part of the project consistes of building an energy-efficient and adaptable cluster, while the second part invilves the design and development of a software framework capable of creating and maintaining that cluster. The framework will allow the cluster to scale dynamically as the load and requirements of the system changes.

Joell Say
An empirical study of elicitation techniques for different user profile types and their impact on the success rate of requirements verification and validation.

The gap between requirements engineering (RE) in research and practice is immense. The “requirements engineering” term itself is not well known among business analysts in the industry, much less the requirements engineering processes that a vast number of authors have put forward. As a result, business analysts in the field (particularly outside of system engineering domains) tend to have limited knowledge of techniques that could be used to aid in the discovery and elicitation of requirements. With the vast number and diversity of elicitation techniques stemming from the requirements engineering and knowledge management domains, a business analyst/ requirements engineer may find it difficult to select a technique if they have not used it before. To address this issue, this project investigates profiling project stakeholders/ users into different groups for the purpose of selecting a requirements elicitation technique appropriate to their background.   The user profile is categorised by the stakeholder’s’ subject matter expertise and their technical computing skills. The project proposes guidelines based on results from the case study, to assist a requirements engineer in the selection of a requirement elicitation technique, appropriate on for the user profile of the stakeholder. The findings show that the use of an elicitation technique based on the profile of a user is more effective than using a standard requirements elicitation technique (such as an open ended interview) without profiling a user.




  • Armarego, J., (2014),Engaging Software Engineering Students with Employability Skills,In: Overcoming Challenges in Software Engineering Education: Delivering Non-Technical Knowledge and Skills, IGI Global, pages 123 to 160.
  • Kanavittaya, P., Armarego, J., Goulding, P., (2010),The alignment of business strategy with agile software development within SMEs,In: Global Perspectives on Small and Medium Enterprises and Strategic Information Systems: International Approaches, IGI Global, pages 215 to 233.
  • Armarego, J., (2009),Constructive Alignment in SE Education: Aligning to What?,In: Software Engineering: effective teaching and learning approaches and practices, Information Science Reference, pages 15 to 37.
  • Armarego, J., (2007),Aligning learning with industry requirements,In: Information Systems and Technology Education: from university to workplace, Information Science Reference, pages 159 to 194.
  • Armarego, J., (2003),The Development of On-line Tests on Multiple Choice Questions,In: Web-Powered Databases, Idea Group, pages 121 to 143.


  • Hilliard, B., Armarego, J., Turk, A., McGill, T., (2017), Delivering a Unified Design Model (UDM) to align design to the way the human brain processes visual information, Journal of Teaching and Education, 6, 2, pages 215 - 232.
  • Shariati, S., Armarego, J., Sudweeks, F., (2017), The Impact of e-Skills on the Settlement of Iranian Refugees in Australia, Interdisciplinary Journal of e-Skills and Lifelong Learning, 13, , pages 59 - 77.
  • Hilliard, B., Armarego, J., Turk, A., McGill, T., (2017), Delivering a Unified Design Model (UDM) to align design to the way the human brain processes visual information, Journal of Teaching and Education, 6, 2, pages 197 - 213.
  • Ahmad, K., Armarego, J., Sudweeks, F., (2017), The Impact of Utilising Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL) on Vocabulary Acquisition among Migrant Women English Learners, Interdisciplinary Journal of e-Skills and Lifelong Learning, 13, , pages 37 - 57.
  • Garba, A., Murray, D., Armarego, J., (2017), A systematic approach to investigating how information security and privacy can be achieved in BYOD environments, Information and Computer Security, 25, 4, pages 475 - 492.
  • McGill, T., Koppi, T., Armarego, J., (2016), ICT Industry Involvement with ICT Education and Research in Universities: Industry Perceptions, Innovations in Teaching and Learning in Information and Computer Sciences, , , pages 1 - 18.
  • Garba, A., Armarego, J., Murray, D., (2015), A Policy Based Framework for Managing Information Security and Privacy Risks in BYOD Environments, International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science, 4, 2, pages 189 - 198.
  • Ahmad, K., Sudweeks, F., Armarego, J., (2015), Learning English vocabulary in a Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL) environment: a sociocultural study of migrant women, Interdisciplinary Journal of e-Skills and Lifelong Learning, 11, , pages 25 - 45.
  • Garba, A., Armarego, J., Murray, D., Kenworthy, W., (2015), Review of the Information Security and Privacy Challenges in Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) Environments, Journal of Information Privacy & Security, 11, 1, pages 38 - 54.
  • Garba, A., Armarego, J., Murray, D., (2015), Bring your own device organizational information security and privacy, Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 10, 3, pages 1279 - 1287.
  • McGill, T., Armarego, J., Koppi, T., (2014), Australian academic leaders' perceptions of the teaching- research-industry-learning nexus in information and communications technology education, International Journal of Information and Communication Technology Education, 10, 1, pages 79 - 88.
  • Armarego, J., Roy, G., (2013), Curriculum assessment for professional accreditation: A modelling framework, Australasian Journal of Engineering Education, 19, 1, pages 1 - 12.
  • Armarego, J., (2012), Enhancing Writing Skills in IT Students, The International Journal of Learning, 18, 10, pages 1 - 16.
  • McGill, T., Armarego, J., Koppi, T., (2012), The teaching-research-industry-learning nexus in information and communications technology, ACM Transactions on Computing Education, 12, 1, pages -.
  • Maxville, V., Armarego, J., Lam, C., (2009), Applying a reusable framework for software selection, IET Software, 3, 5, pages 369 - 380.
  • Armarego, J., (2005), The reengineering of a software system for glaucoma analysis, Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, 79, 2, pages 97 - 109.
  • Armarego, J., (2005), Requirements Engineering: a close look at industry needs and model curricula, Australasian Journal of Information Systems, 13, 1, pages 192 - 208.
  • Fowler, L., Armarego, J., Allen, R., (2001), CASE Tools: Constructivism and its application to learing and usability of software engineering tools, Computer Science Education, 11, , pages 261 - 272.


  • Hilliard, B., Armarego, J., McGill, T., (2016),Optimising visual layout for training and learning technologies,In: Australasian Conference on Information Systems, 2016.
  • Gabriel-Seow, M., Armarego, J., (2015),Three Approaches to Align Business Direction and Information Systems and Processes in an Australian Organisation,In: The International Conference on Organizational Strategy, Business Models, and Risk Management (OSBMRM) (2015).
  • Ahmad, K., Armarego, J., Sudweeks, F., (2014),Utilising Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL) for Vocabulary Acquisition of Refugee Women English Learners,In: The 2nd International Virtual Conference on Advanced Scientific Results (SCIECONF-2014).
  • Armarego, J., Roy, G., (2012),A modelling framework for curriculum assessment for professional accreditation,In: 8th International CDIO Conference.
  • Roy, G., Armarego, J., (2011),Modelling competency standards to facilitate accreditation: a pathways perspective,In: 22nd Australasian Association for Engineering Education (AAEE) Annual Conference (2011).
  • Laizu, Z., Armarego, J., Sudweeks, F., (2010),The role of ICT in women's empowerment in rural Bangladesh,In: 7th Cultural Attitudes Towards Communication and Technology (CATaC) International Conference (2010).
  • Laizu, Z., Armarego, J., Sudweeks, F., (2010),Cognitive change in women's empowerment in rural Bangladesh,In: 13th International Conference on Computer and Information Technology (ICCIT) (2010).
  • Armarego, J., (2009),Displacing the Sage on the Stage: Student Control of Learning,In: 22nd Conference on Software Engineering Education and Training (CSEET) (2009).
  • Armarego, J., (2008),Engaging IT students in enhancing writing skills,In: 31st Higher Education Research and Development Society of Australasia (HERDSA) Conference (2008).
  • Armarego, J., (2007),Deconstructing Students' Attitude to Learning: A Case Study in IT Education,In: Computer Science & IT Education (CSITEd) Conference (2007).
  • Armarego, J., (2007),Learning from reflection: practitioners as adult learners,In: 20th Conference on Software Engineering Education and Training (CSEE&T) (2007).
  • Armarego, J., (2007),Beyond PBL: preparing graduates for professional practice,In: 20th Conference on Software Engineering Education and Training (CSEE&T) (2007).
  • Armarego, J., (2005),Studio Learning of Requirements: towards aligning teaching to practitioner needs,In: 1st International Workshop on Requirements Engineering Education and Training (REET) (2005).
  • Armarego, J., (2005),Educating agents of change,In: 18th Conference on Software Engineering Education and Training (CSEE&T) (2005).
  • Armarego, J., (2005),Orienting students to Studio Learning,In: 4th ASEE/AaeE Global Colloquium on Engineering Education (2005).
  • Roy, G., Armarego, J., (2004),Teaching Programming with objects,In: 21st Australasian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education (ASCILITE) Annual Conference (2004).
  • Armarego, J., Roy, G., (2004),Teaching design principles in Software Engineering,In: 21st Australasian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education (ASCILITE) Annual Conference (2004).
  • Armarego, J., (2004),Student perceptions of quality learning: evaluating PBL in Software Engineering,In: 13th Annual Teaching Learning Forum (2004).
  • Armarego, J., (2004),Requirements Engineering: a Close Look at Industry Needs and Model Curricula,In: .
  • Armarego, J., (2004),Towards achieving Software Engineering wisdom,In: 27th Higher Education Research and Development Society of Australasia (HERDSA) Conference (2004).
  • Maxville, V., Armarego, J., Lam, C., (2004),Intelligent component selection,In: 28th Annual International Computer Software and Applications Conference (COMPSAC) (2004).
  • Maxville, V., Lam, C., Armarego, J., (2004),Learning to Select Software Components,In: 16th Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering (SEKE) International Conference (2004).
  • Maxville, V., Lam, C., Armarego, J., (2003),Selecting Components: a Process for Context-Driven Evaluation,In: 10th Asia-Pacific Software Engineering Conference (APSEC) (2003).
  • Armarego, J., Clarke, S., (2003),Preparing students for the future: learning creative software development - setting the stage,In: 26th Higher Education Research and Development Society of Australasia (HERDSA) Annual Conference (2003).
  • Fowler, L., McGill, D., Armarego, J., Allen, R., (2002),Quantitative learning conversations: Constructivism and its application to learning in an engineering environment,In: 19th - 25th Higher Education Research and Development Society of Australasia Conferences (HERDSA) (1996-2002).
  • Armarego, J., (2002),Advanced Software Design: a Case in Problem-based Learning,In: 15th Conference on Software Engineering Education and Training (CSEET) (2002).
  • Fowler, L., Armarego, J., Allen, R., (2001),Learning theory and its application to Female learner support in engineering,In: Proceedings of the Tenth International Women in Leadership Conference.
  • Armarego, J., Fowler, L., Roy, G., (2001),Constructing engineering knowledge: development of an online learning environment,In: 14th Conference on Software Engineering Education and Training (CSEET) (2001).
  • Fowler, L., Allen, R., Armarego, J., Mackenzie, J., (2000),Learning styles and CASE tools in software engineering,In: Flexibles Futures in Higher Education.
  • Armarego, J., Roy, G., (2000),Management of a student centred online environment,In: Flexible Futrues in Tertiary Teaching.