Michael Borowitzka  from Murdoch University in Perth Australia.

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    Emeritus Professor Michael Borowitzka
    BSc (Hons), PhD, FAICD Dip

    Professor of Marine Phycology

    About me

    I work on algae – their taxonomy, biology, ecology, physiology, biochemistry and their uses etc.

    At the Algae R&D Centre we can culture many types of algae in many different culture systems from small scale (several mL) to large-scale (10,000 L and more). We isolate news species and strains, develop new ways of culturing them and manipulating their composition, and try to take the most promising to commercial scale, something which we have succeeded at several times.

    My projects take place all around the world and I work and have worked on algae projects in countries such as China, Taiwan, India, Malaysia, Japan, Indonesia, Chile, Cuba, Brazil, New Zealand, USA, Germany, Austria, Czech Republic, Spain, UK, the Netherlands, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Abu Dhabi and South Africa.

    Please also visit our research team Web-site  Algae R&D Centre

    Teaching area

    I teach in the following Units:

    BUS 215 Business Feasibility & Management Concepts (Unit Coordinator)

    BIO 384 Marine & Estuarine Biology

    BIO265/287 Plant Diversity

    BIO 300 Industry Practicum (Unit Cordinator)


    Current projects

    Current projects:

    • Algae as sources of valuable chemicals (several projects)
    • Photophysiology of halophilic unicellular algae
    • Manipulating dark respiration
    • Commercial-scale culture of microalgae
    • Tropical Cyanobacterial Mats (physiology and ecology)
    • Ecophysiology of algae in commercial culture systems
    • Algae calcification
    • Sponge-algae symbioses
    • Intertidal ecology
    • In-culture evolution


    Events and speaking engagements


    • November 2012: 5th Algae World Asia, Singapore. – “Non GMO Improvements and Strain Limitations
    • September 2012: SAE 2012 Powertrains, Fuels and Lubricants Conference, Malmo, Sweden - “Next Generation Biofuels
    • May 2012: International Symposium on Microalgal Biofuel from Wastewater (ISMBW), Seoul, Korea. – “Development of microalgae as economic and sustainable sources of biofuels
    • April 2012: 2nd Algae World Australia, Perth, Australia. “Future directions”
    • February 2012: Technology Roadmap for Algal Biomass Energy Development, Tokyo, japan. – “From the lab to the production plant: a journey in commercial-scale algae culture
    • February 2012: Alternative Aviation Fuel Initiative in Asia & ASEAN Algae Biofuel Initiative Conferences, Singapore – “Algae Mass Cultivation Systems
    • November 2011: Bioenergy Australia Conference: Queensland
    • September 2011: Geoengineering Symposium, Australian Academy of Science, Canberra. Canberra. - “Ocean fertilization”







    Professional and community service


    International Phycological Society

    • Executive Committee (1998-2001)
    • Vice President (2012-2014)
    • President Elect (2014-2017)

    Asia-Pacific Society of Applied Phycology

    • President (1994-2000)
    • Secretary (2001-2002)
    • Executive Committee (2012-2015)

    International Society for Applied Phycology

    • President (2005-2008)
    • Vice-President (2002-2005; 2008-2010)
    • Executive Committee (2011-2014)

    Australian Institute of Company Directors

    • Fellow (since  1990)


    • Committee Member (WA Branch) (2007)

    Australian Biotechnology Association

    • Committee Member (WA Branch) (1986)
    • Treasurer (WA Branch) (1987-1989)
    • Chairman (WA Branch) (1990-2001)

    Australian Marine Sciences Association

    • Council Member (1983-1988)
    • Treasurer (NSW Branch) (1980-1982)
    • Committee Member (WA Branch) (1983-1985)
    • Treasurer (WA Branch) (1986-1988)

    Australasian Society for Phycology and Aquatic Botany

    • Planning Committee member (1979)
    • Executive Committee Member (1980-1986)
    • Newsletter Editor (1980-1982)
    • Treasurer (1982-1986)

    Australian Coral reef Society

    • Council member (1979, 1981-1985, 1987-1988)
    • Conservation Committee (1985-1988)

     British Phycological Society

    Phycological Society of America

    Royal Society of WA

    Australian Ecological Society

    Royal Society of Western Australia



    Journal of Applied Phycology (Springer)

    • Editor-in-Chief (2005 -  present)
    • Associate Editor (1992-2005)
    • Editorial Board member (1988-1992)

    Developments in Applied Phycology (Book Series published by Springer)

    • Series Editor (2006 – present)

    International Seaweed Symposium

    • Editor-in-Chief (2007 – present)

    Botanica Marina (de Gruyter) – (1983-2005)

    Coral Reefs (Springer) – (2001-2003)

    International Journal of Salt Lake Research (Springer) – 1991-1998)

    Biorecovery (1986-1995)

    Australasian Biotechnology

    • Guest Editor (1993, 1994)

    Australian Journal of Biotechnology (1988-1991)

    Australasian Aquatic Botany Newsletter

    • Editor (1978-1980)

    Australasian Society for Phycology & Aquatic Botany Newsletter

    • Editor (1980-1982)

    Doctoral and masters supervisions

    CURRENT PhD Students:

    • Andreas Isdepsky - Algal culture for biofuels production
    • Samuel Hair – Bacteria in abalone aquaculture
    • Indrayani – New algae with commercial potential
    • Jason Webb -Photosynthesis and calcification in coccolithophorids

    CURRENT Masters Students

    • Zije Zhang – Culture of Botryococcus
    • Ganjar Saefurahman – Limits to growth in Large-scale cultures
    • Phillip Nowotny – Limits to growth

    Completed PhD Students:

    • Penny Farrant (1985) Autecology of the symbiont-containing temperate soft coral Capnella gaboensis (co-supervisor R Hinde USyd)
    • Heather Lawlor (1989) Tissue culture of brown algae (co-supervisor J. McComb)
    • Tom Mercz (1995) Lipid forming microalgae
    • Roberta Townsend (Cowan) (1996) Systematics and phylogeny of the Corallinales (co-supervisor AWD Larkum USyd)
    • Donelle Trautman (1996) Ecology of a tropical symbiont-containing sponge (co-supervisor R. Hinde USyd)
    • Mike Van Keulen (1998) Water flow in seagrass beds
    • Michelle Buttery (2000) Culture studies on toxic dinoflagellates
    • Janet Howieson (2001) Carotenogenesis in Haematococcus pluvials
    • Navid Reza Moheimani (2005) Carbon dioxide bioremediation using coccolithophorids
    • Jeff Cosgrove (2007) Use of fluorescence to study nutrient limitation in phytoplankton (co-supervisor L Twomey)
    • Sophie Fon Sing (2011) - Microalgae for lipid production
    • Lachlan Strain (2014) Algae for the nutrition of abalone

    Past Masters Students

    • Kuniji Harada (1980) A study of colonization of benthic macroalgae at an exposed site off Sydney
    • Francoise Pironet (1985) Physiological study of a tropical sponge and its symbiotic blue-green algae (Co-supervisor R. Hinde USyd)
    • Chandra Chrismadha (1994) Culture systems for lipid producing microalgae



    • Borowitzka, M., Critchley, A., Kraan, S., Peters, A., Sjotun, K., Notoya, M., (2009),Developments in Applied Phycology 2. Nineteenth International Seaweed Symposium,Sprnger Science + Business Media B.V. 2008.
    • Shamshudin, L., Shazhili, N., Borowitzka, M., Saadon, M., (1999),Asessment & Monitoring of Marine System,,University Putra Mayasia Teregganu.


    • Borowitzka, M., (2018),Microalgae in medicine and human health: A historical perspective,In: Microalgae in Health and Disease Prevention, Elsevier, pages to.
    • Moheimani, N., Borowitzka, M., Isdepsky, A., Fon Sing, S., (2013),Standard methods for measuring growth of algae and their composition,In: Algae for Biofuels and Energy, Springer, pages 265 to 284.
    • Borowitzka, M., (2013),techno-economic modelling for biofuels from microalgae,In: Algae for Biofuels and Energy, Springer, pages 255 to 264.
    • Borowitzka, M., (2013),Species and strain selection,In: Algae for Biofuels and Energy, Springer, pages 77 to 89.
    • Borowitzka, M., Moheimani, N., (2013),Open pond culture systems,In: Algae for Biofuels and Energy, Springer, pages 133 to 152.
    • Borowitzka, M., (2013),Dunaliella: Biology, production, and markets,In: Handbook of Microalgal Culture. Applied Phycology and Biotechnology, Wiley-Blackwell, pages 359 to 368.
    • Borowitzka, M., (2013),Energy from microalgae: A short history,In: Algae for Biofuels and Energy, Springer, pages 1 to 15.
    • Paul, N., Tseng, C., Borowitzka, M., (2012),Seaweed and Microalgae,In: Aquaculture. farming aquatic animals and plants, Wiley-Blackwell, pages 268 to 293.
    • Borowitzka, M., (2012),Lower Plants,In: Handbook of Bioenergy Crop Plants, CRC Press, pages 653 to 670.
    • Enriquez, S., Borowitzka, M., (2011),The Use of the Fluorescence Signal in Studies of Seagrasses and Macroalgae,In: Chlorophyll a Fluorescence in Aquatic Sciences: Methods and Applications, Springer, pages 187 to 208.
    • Cosgrove, J., Borowitzka, M., (2011),Chlorophyll Fluorescence Terminology: An Introduction,In: Chlorophyll a Fluorescence in Aquatic Sciences: Methods and Applications, Springer, pages 1 to 17.
    • Borowitzka, M., Hallegraeff, G., (2007),Economic Importance of Algae,In: Algae of Australia: Introduction, ABRS, pages 594 to 622.
    • Borowitzka, M., Lavery, P., Van Keulen, M., (2006),Epiphytes of Seagrass,In: Seagrasses: Biology, Ecology and Conservation, Springer, pages 441 to 461.
    • Borowitzka, M., (2005),Carotenoid production using Microorganisms,In: Single Cell Oils, AOCS Press, pages 124 to 137.
    • Borowitzka, M., (2005),Culturing microalgae in outdoor ponds,In: Algal Culturing techniques, Elsevier, pages 205 to 218.
    • Huisman, J., Borowitzka, M., (2003),Marine Benthic Flora of the Dampier Archipelago, Western Australia,In: The Marine Flora and Fauna of Dampier, Western Australia, Western Australian Museum, pages 291 to 344.
    • Tseng, C., Borowitzka, M., (2003),Algae Culture,In: Aquaculture. Framing Aquatic Animals and Plants, Fishing Book News, pages 253 to 275.
    • Borowitzka, M., (1999),Pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals from microalgae,In: Chemicals from Microalgae, Taylor & Francis, pages 313 to 352.
    • Borowitzka, M., (1999),Economic evaluation of microalgal processes and products,In: Chemicals from Microalgae, Taylor & Francis, pages 387 to 409.
    • Borowitzka, M., Hinde, R., (1999),Sponges symbiotic with algae or cyanobacteria in coral reefs,In: Assessment & Monitoring of Marine System, University Putra Malaysia Teregganu, pages 7 to 17.
    • Borowitzka, M., (1998),Limits to growth,In: Wastewater treatment with algae, Springer Verlag, pages 203 to 226.
    • Borowitzka, M., (1998),Algae as food,In: Microbiology of fermented foods, Blackie Academic & Professional, pages 585 to 602.


    • Chuka-ogwude, D., Ogbonna, J., Borowitzka, M., Moheimani, N., (2020), Screening, acclimation and ammonia tolerance of microalgae grown in food waste digestate, Journal of Applied Phycology, 32, , pages 3775 - 3785.
    • Indrayani, I., Moheimani, N., de Boer, K., Arabzadeh Bahri, P., Borowitzka, M., (2020), Temperature and salinity effects on growth and fatty acid composition of a halophilic diatom, Amphora sp. MUR258 (Bacillariophyceae), Journal of Applied Phycology, , , pages -.
    • Indrayani, I., Moheimani, N., Borowitzka, M., (2019), Long-term reliable culture of a halophilic diatom, Amphora sp. MUR258, in outdoor raceway ponds, Journal of Applied Phycology, 31, , pages 2771 - 2778.
    • Ayre, J., Moheimani, N., Borowitzka, M., (2017), Growth of microalgae on undiluted anaerobic digestate of piggery effluent with high ammonium concentrations, Algal Research: biology, biomass and biofuels, 24, , pages 218 - 226.
    • Fon Sing, S., Borowitzka, M., (2016), Isolation and screening of euryhaline Tetraselmis spp. suitable for large-scale outdoor culture in hypersaline media for biofuels, Journal of Applied Phycology, 28, 1, pages 1 - 14.
    • Boruff, B., Moheimani, N., Borowitzka, M., (2015), Identifying locations for large-scale microalgae cultivation in Western Australia: A GIS approach, Applied Energy, 149, , pages 379 - 391.
    • Cosgrove, J., Moheimani, N., Borowitzka, M., (2015), Diurnal Patterns in Phytoplankton Photosynthesis, Fremantle Harbour, Photosynthesis Research, 98, 2015, pages 19 - 27.
    • Fon Sing, S., Isdepsky, A., Borowitzka, M., Lewis, D., (2014), Pilot-scale continuous recycling of growth medium for the mass culture of a halotolerant Tetraselmis sp in raceway ponds under increasing salinity: A novel protocol for commercial microalgal biomass production, Bioresource Technology, 161, , pages 47 - 54.
    • Raes, E., Isdepsky, A., Muylaert, K., Borowitzka, M., Moheimani, N., (2014), Comparison of growth of Tetraselmis in a tubular photobioreactor (Biocoil) and a raceway pond, Journal of Applied Phycology, 26, 1, pages 247 - 255.
    • Moheimani, N., Watanabe, M., Matsuura, H., Borowitzka, M., (2014), Non-destructive hydrocarbon extraction from Botryococcus braunii BOT-22 (race B), Journal of Applied Phycology, 26, , pages 1453 - 1464.
    • Moheimani, N., Cord-Ruwisch, R., Raes, E., Borowitzka, M., (2013), Non-destructive oil extraction from Botryococcus braunii (Chlorophyta), Journal of Applied Phycology, 25, 6, pages 1653 - 1661.
    • Olivia, M., Moheimani, N., Javaherdashti, R., Nikraz, H., Borowitzka, M., (2013), The Influence of Micro Algae on Corrosion of Steel in Fly Ash Geopolymer Concrete: A Preliminary Study, Advanced Materials Research, 626, , pages 861 - 866.
    • Borowitzka, M., Moheimani, N., (2013), Sustainable biofuels from algae, Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change: an international journal devoted to scientific, engineering, socio-economic and policy responses to environmental change, 18, 1, pages 13 - 25.
    • Fon Sing, S., Isdepsky, A., Borowitzka, M., Moheimani, N., (2013), Production of biofuels from microalgae, Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change: an international journal devoted to scientific, engineering, socio-economic and policy responses to environmental change, 18, 1, pages 47 - 72.
    • Borowitzka, M., (2013), High-value products from microalgae-their development and commercialisation, Journal of Applied Phycology, 25, 3, pages 743 - 756.
    • Saefurahman, G., Frazer, R., Moheimani, N., Parlevliet, D., Borowitzka, M., (2013), Effect of different light spectra on the growth, productivity and composition of microalgae, Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia, 96, , pages 77 -.
    • de Boer, K., Moheimani, N., Borowitzka, M., Arabzadeh Bahri, P., (2012), Extraction and conversion pathways for microalgae to biodiesel: A review focused on energy consumption, Journal of Applied Phycology, 24, 6, pages 1681 - 1698.
    • Moheimani, N., Webb, J., Borowitzka, M., (2012), Bioremediation and other potential applications of coccolithophorid algae: A review, Algal Research: biology, biomass and biofuels, 1, 2, pages 120 - 133.
    • Moheimani, N., Isdepsky, A., Lisec, J., Raes, E., Borowitzka, M., (2011), Coccolithophorid algae culture in closed photobioreactors, Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 108, 9, pages 2078 - 2087.
    • Huisman, J., De Clerck, O., Prud'homme Van Reine, W., Borowitzka, M., (2011), Spongophloea, a new genus of red algae based on Thamnoclonium sect. Nematophorae Weber-van Bosse (Halymeniales), European Journal of Phycology, 46, 1, pages 1 - 15.
    • Moheimani, N., Borowitzka, M., (2011), Increased CO2 and the effect of pH on growth and calcification of Pleurochrysis carterae and Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyta) in semicontinuous cultures, Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 90, 4, pages 1399 - 1407.
    • Stephens, E., Ross, I., Mussgnug, J., Wagner, L., Borowitzka, M., Clemens, P., Kruse, O., Hankamer, B., (2010), Future prospects of microalgal biofuel production systems, Trends in Plant Science, 15, 10, pages 554 - 564.
    • Stephens, E., Ross, I., King, Z., Mussgnug, J., Kruse, O., Posten, C., Borowitzka, M., Hankamer, B., (2010), An economic and technical evaluation of microalgal biofuels, Nature Biotechnology, 28, 2, pages 126 - 128.
    • Javaherdashti, R., Nikraz, H., Borowitzka, M., Moheimani, N., Olivia, M., (2009), On the Impact of Algae on Accelerating the Biodeterioration/Biocorrosion of Reinforced Concrete: A Mechanistic Review, European Journal of Scientific Research, 36, 3, pages 394 - 406.
    • Borowitzka, M., (2009), Ralph A Lewin (1921 - 2008), Journal of Applied Phycology, 21, 1, pages 1 - 9.
    • Borowitzka, M., (2008), Marine and halophilic algae for the production of biofuels, Journal of Biotechnology, 136, S1, pages S7 -.
    • Strain, L., Idepsky, A., Borowitzka, M., Daume, S., (2007), Three algal propagation methods assessed to create a Rhodophyta diet for juvenile greenlip abalone (Haliotis laevigata) in the later nursery phase, Journal of Shellfish Research, 26, 3, pages 737 - 744.
    • Borowitzka, M., Moheimani, N., (2007), Limits to productivity of the alga Pleurochrysis carterae (Haptophyta) grown in outdoor raceway ponds, Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 96, 1, pages 27 - 36.
    • Moheimani, N., Borowitzka, M., (2006), The long-term culture of the coccolithophore Pleurochrysis carterae (Haptophyta) in outdoor raceway ponds, Journal of Applied Phycology, 18, , pages 703 - 712.
    • Strain, L., Borowitzka, M., Daume, S., (2006), Growth and survival of juvenile greenlip abalone (Haliotis laevigata) feeding on germlings of the macroalgae Ulva sp, Journal of Shellfish Research, 25, , pages 239 - 247.
    • Cosgrove, J., Borowitzka, M., (2006), Applying pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) to microalgae suspensions: stirring potentially impacts fluorescence, Photosynthesis Research, 88, , pages 343 - 350.
    • Van Keulen, M., Borowitzka, M., (2003), Dynamics of sediments along an exposure gradient in a monospecific seagrass meadow in Shoalwater Bay, Western Australia, Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 57, 4, pages 587 - 592.
    • Van Keulen, M., Borowitzka, M., (2003), Seasonal variability in sediment distribution along an exposure gradient in a seagrass meadow in Shoalwater bay, Western Australia, Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 57, 4, pages 587 - 592.
    • Pile, A., Grant, A., Hinde, R., Borowitzka, M., (2003), Heterotrophy on ultraplankton communities is an important source of nitrogen for a sponge-rhodophyte symbiosis, Journal of Experimental Biology, 206, , pages 4533 - 4538.
    • Trautman, D., Hinde, R., Borowitzka, M., (2003), The role of habitat in determining the distribution of a sponge-red alga symbiosis ion a coral reef, Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 283, , pages 1 - 20.
    • Davey, S., Trautman, D., Borowitzka, M., Hinde, R., (2002), Ammonium excretion by a symbiotic sponge supplies the nitrogen requirements of its rhodophyte partner, Journal of Experimental Biology, 205, , pages 3505 - 3511.
    • Townsend, R., Borowitzka, M., (2001), Heydrichia homalopasta sp. nov. (Sporolithaceae, Rhodophyta) from Australia, Botanica Marina, 44, , pages 237 - 244.
    • Borowitzka, M., (2000), Patents, Journal of Applied Phycology, 12, , pages 613 - 615.
    • Trautman, D., Hinde, R., Borowitzka, M., (2000), Population dynamics of an association between a coral reef sponge and a red macroalga, Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 244, , pages 87 - 105.
    • Borowitzka, M., (1999), Commercial production of microalgae: ponds, tanks, tubes and fermenters, Journal of Biotechnology, 70, , pages 313 - 321.
    • Trautman, D., Borowitzka, M., (1999), Distribution of the epiphytic organisms on Posidinia australis and P. sinuosa, two seagrasses with differing leaf morphology, Marine Ecology - Progress Series, 179, , pages 215 - 229.
    • Borowitzka, M., (1999), Patents, Journal of Applied Phycology, 11, , pages 599 - 603.
    • Borowitzka, M., (1999), Commercial-scale culture of cyanobacteria, Institut Oceanographique. Bulletin, Special 19, , pages 507 - 515.
    • Price, I., Huisman, J., Borowitzka, M., (1998), Two new species of Caulerpa (Caulerpales, Chlorophyta) from the west coast of Australia, Phycologia, 37, , pages 10 - 15.
    • Borowitzka, M., (1998), Patents, Journal of Applied Phycology, 10, , pages 107 - 109.
    • Borowitzka, M., (1998), Patents, Journal of Applied Phycology, 10, , pages 413 - 415.
    • Borowitzka, M., (1998), A 75th birthday tribute to H.B.S. Womersley, Botanica Marina, 41, , pages 1 - 5.
    • Borowitzka, M., (1997), Microalgae for aquaculture: Opportunities and constraints, Journal of Applied Phycology, 9, , pages 393 - 401.
    • Borowitzka, M., (1997), Patents, Journal of Applied Phycology, 3, 9, pages 297 - 299.
    • Borowitzka, M., (1997), Patents, Journal of Applied Phycology, 1, 9, pages 81 - 89.


    • Borowitzka, M., Critchley, A., Kraan, S., Peters, A., Sjotun, K., Notoya, M., (2008),Nineteenth International Seaweed Symposium,In: 19th International Seaweed Symposium (2007).
    • Van Keulen, M., Borowitzka, M., (2000),Comparison of water velocity profiles through morphologically dissimilar seagrasses,In: Biologia Marina Mediterranea.
    • Borowitzka, M., (1998),Appropriate technology in large-scale algal culture systems,In: Anais do IV Congresso Latino-Americano II Reuniano Iberio-Americana VII Reuniano Brasileira de Ficologia.
    • Suarez, G., Romero, T., Borowitzka, M., (1998),Cultivo de la microalga Dunaliella salina en medio organico,In: Anais IV Congesso latino-Americano II Reuniao Ibero-Americana VII reuniao Brasileira de Ficologia.

     This listing of publications is derived automatically from the University database and the citations are therefore not complete (or up-to-date) in some cases due to the limitation of the University Research database.