Natasha Rappa  from Murdoch University in Perth Australia.

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    Dr Natasha Rappa
    PhD (University of Sheffield); MA (University of Michigan); BA with Honours (National University of Singapore)

    Senior Lecturer

    About me

    I am a Senior Lecturer with a specialisation in Educational Technology in the Education Discipline at the College of Science, Health, Engineering and Education at Murdoch University. I hold a PhD in Education from the University of Sheffield and a MA from the University of Michigan.

    Prior to joining Murdoch University, I worked in various capacities at the Singapore Ministry of Education and the National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, over a period of 18 years. I was involved in English language teaching at a pre-university institution and teacher professional development for technology integration and disciplinary literacy.  I taught technology integration in education at the National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.

    My research interests include the use of learning/educational technologies in academic subjects, literacy in academic subjects, academic identity and agency. I led a research project on Virtual Worlds funded by the Singapore Ministry of Education. I led one study on Virtual Worlds and I was a collaborator in two studies on harnessing popular media in science and disciplinary literacy in science funded by the Office of Education Research at the National Institute of Education, Singapore. My current focus is on virtual reality and mixed reality learning environments.

    I have published articles in reputable journals such as Interactive Learning Environments, Linguistics and Education, Research in Science Education, Computer Assisted Language Learning and the British Journal of Educational Technology. I have written chapters in edited books by established publishers such as TESOL International and Springer.

    Teaching area

    EDN 113 Living and Learning with Technology (Unit Coordinator and Tutor)

    EDN 206 Digital Technology in the Classroom (Unit Coordinator and Tutor)

    EDN 575 Opportunities with e-Learning (Unit Coordinator)

    EDU 615 Learning and Teaching with ICT (Unit Coordinator and Tutor)

    Research areas

    Learning Technologies / Educational Technologies/ Information and Communication Technologies / Digital Technologies

    Extended Reality or XReality – Virtual Reality and Mixed Reality Learning Environments/ Virtual Worlds/ Immersive Virtual Learning Environments

    Massive Open Online Courses/ Online Learning

    Serious Games

    21st Century Skills/ Competencies

    Disciplinary literacy

    Student Identity

    Student Agency

    Awards and grants


    Excellence in Postgraduate Research Supervision (nominee), 2022, VC’s Excellence in Research & Innovation Awards

    Excellence in Research and Innovation, 2021, VC’s Excellence in Research & Innovation Awards


    Murdoch University Conference Travel Grant, 2019, AUD$1500, Sole Recipient

    Murdoch University Strategic Research Funding Scheme, 2018, AUD$2987, Sole Recipient

    International Conference of the Learning Sciences Doctoral Consortium Award, International Society of the Learning Sciences, 2014, USD$1844, Sole Recipient

    Start-up Grant Award, Office of Education Research, National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, 2012, SGD$18,085, Chief Investigator

    Lenovo Innovation Merit Award (Team), 2008

    Lead ICT @ Schools Funding Scheme, Singapore Ministry of Education, 2007, SGD$72,436,  Chief Investigator

    Events and speaking engagements

    Event: International Webinar on SimLab Technology in Education 5.0Date: 20 August 2021, Organiser: Department of Elementary Teacher Education, Universitas Negeri Surabaya (Surabaya State University), Indonesia, Role: Keynote, Access:



    Doctoral and masters supervisions


    • Dr. Haimin Dai, Assistant Professor, School of Education, Shanghai Jiao Tong University. PhD Thesis Topic: Continuous learning in MOOCs: Insights from Chinese leaners.
    • Dr. Stephen Spain. Principal Founder of the Kids’ Conference & Academic Teacher, Monash University. PhD Thesis Topic: Rethinking the Australian Curriculum through a Systems Thinking perspective.
    • Dr. Megan Pusey. PhD Thesis Topic: Exploring the relationship between cognitively challenging puzzle video games and resilient behaviours.
    • Dr. Andrew Sephton. Teacher, Australian Christian College (Southlands, Western Australia). Thesis Topic: Exploring school adaptations to the challenges of educating in the context of the Covid-19 pandemic.

    Ed.D and Ph.D students

    • Shahid Anwar
    • Hoang Van Le
    • Brigitte Pedraza Delgado
    • Jason Graham
    • Kim Balnaves
    • Hannah Xie
    • Jesslyn Lau
    • David Youngman
    • Kamini Peersia
    • Ugochi Ugwu
    • Fiona Currey
    • Snow Li

    M.Ed and M.Phil students

    • Felicity Baker
    • Aneen Lamble
    • Barbara Loessl


    Journal Articles 

    Rappa, N. A. & Ledger, S. (2023). Pre-service teachers’ reflections on their challenging experiences interacting with a parent avatar: Insights on deepening reflection on the simulation experience. Journal of Education for Teaching, 49(2), 311-325. or download eprint

    Dai, Haimin, Teo, T. & Rappa, N. A. (2022). The role of gender and employment status in MOOC learning: An exploratory study. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 38(5), 1360-1370.

    Ledger, S., Burgess, M., Rappa, N., Power, B., Wong, K. W., Teo, T., & Hilliard, B. (2022). Simulation platforms in Initial Teacher Education: Past practice informing future potentiality. Computers & Education, 178, 104385.

    Pusey, M., Wong, K.W. and Rappa, N.A. (2021). Using case studies to explore need satisfaction and frustration in puzzle video games. Games and Culture

    Pusey, M., Wong, K.W. and Rappa, N.A. (2021). The Puzzle Challenge Analysis Tool. A Tool for Analysing the Cognitive Challenge Level of Puzzles in Video Games. Proceedings of the ACM on Human-Computer Interaction, 5, 1–27.

    Dai, H. M., Ju, B., Teo, T., Rappa. N. A. (2021). Understanding Chinese female university teachers’ intention to pursue a PhD degree: some insights from a Chinese university. Higher Education, 81, 1347–1366.

    Dai, Haimin, Teo, T., Rappa, N. A. (2020). Understanding continuance intention among MOOC partcipants: The role of habit and MOOC performance. Computers in Human Behavior, 112, 106455.

    Dai, Haimin, Teo, T., Rappa, N. A. & Huang, F. (2020). Explaining Chinese university students’ continuance learning intention in the MOOC setting: A modified expectation confirmation model perspective. Computers & Education, 150, 103850.

    Pusey, M., Wong, K. W. & Rappa, N. A. (2020). Resilience interventions using interactive technology: A scoping review. Interactive Learning Environments

    Tang, K. S. & Rappa, N. A. (2020). The role of metalanguage in an explicit literacy instruction on scientific explanation. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education.

    Rappa, N. A., Ledger, S., Teo, T., Wong, K. W., Power, B. & Hilliard, B. (2019). The use of eye tracking technology to explore learning and performance within virtual reality and mixed reality settings: A scoping review. Interactive Leaning Environments.

    Ho, C., Wong, J. K. Y. & Rappa, N. A. (2019). Supporting students’ content learning in Biology through teachers’ use of classroom talk drawing on concept sketches. In Y. L. Yuen & A. Lin (Eds.), Teaching, Learning and Scaffolding in CLIL Science Classrooms [Special issue]. Journal of Immersion and Content-based Language Education,7(2), 243-263. 

    Rappa, N. A & Tang, K. S. (2018). Integrating disciplinary-specific genre structure in discourse strategies to support disciplinary literacy. Linguistics and Education, 43, 1-12.

    Rappa, N. A. & Tang, K. S. (2017). Student Agency: an analysis of students’ networked relations across the informal and formal learning domains. Research in Science Education, 47(3), 673-684

    Ho, M.L.C., Rappa, N. A., & Chee, Y. S. (2009). Designing and implementing virtual enactive role-play and structured argumentation: Promises and pitfalls. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 22 (5), 381-408.

    Rappa, N. A., Yip, D. K. H & Baey, S. C. (2009). The role of teacher, student and ICT in enhancing student engagement in multi-user virtual environments. British Journal of Educational Technology, 40 (1), 61-69.

    Book Chapters

    Ho, C., Wong, J. K. Y. & Rappa, N. A. (2021). Supporting students’ content learning in Biology through teachers’ use of classroom talk drawing on concept sketches. In Yuen Yi Lo & Angel M. Y. Lin (Eds.), Teaching, Learning and Scaffolding in CLIL Science Classrooms. John Benjamins.

    Ho, M.L.C, Rappa, N. A. & Tang, K. S. (2018). Meeting disciplinary literacy demands in content learning: The Singapore perspective. In K. S. Tang & K. Danielsson (Eds.), Global developments in literacy research for science education (pp. 445-60). Cham: Springer.

    Ho, C., Rappa, N. A.,  Bong, Y., Chin, Y. & Ng, L. (2017). Supporting Geography students in interpreting visual data in English. In Dantas-Whitney, M. & Rilling, S. (Eds.), TESOL voices: Insider accounts of classroom life, secondary education (pp. 23-31). Alexandria, Virginia: TESOL International Association.

    Rappa, N. A. & Chan C. H. (2006). Using discussion boards in GP Instruction. In C. Ho, Teo, P. & Ang M. Y. (Eds.), Teaching the General Paper: Strategies that work (pp. 217-238). Singapore: Pearson Longman.

    Conference Proceedings

    Pusey, M., Wong, K.W. and Rappa, N.A. (2021). Player problem-solving strategies in co-located play of a single-player video game. Proceedings of DiGRA Australia 2021.

    Pusey, M., Wong, K.W. and Rappa, N.A. (2020). The effect of a more knowledgeable other on resilience while playing single-player puzzle video games. In H. J. So, M. Rodrigo, J. Mason, A. Mitrovic (Eds.), 28th International Conference on Computers in Education Conference Proceedings Volume I (pp.460-465). Jhongli City, Taoyuan County, Taiwan: Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education.

    Rappa, N. A. (2019). Understanding pre-service teachers’ experiences of a mixed reality simulation environment: An analysis of pre-service teachers’ perspectives on communicating with a simulated parent avatar. In Y. W. Chew, K. M. Chan, and A. Alphonso (Eds.), Personalised Learning. Diverse Goals. One Heart. ASCILITE 2019 Singapore (pp.535-539).

    Rappa, N. A., Yip, D. K. H., Yeo, V. L., Ong, P. S. Y, Tan, L. W. (2014, January). Facilitating perspective-taking in writing through case studies and virtual world role-play. Hawaii International Conference on Education 2014 Conference Proceedings, 12 (pp.2333-2334).

    Rappa, N. A. (2014, June). Have I become what I once beheld? Identity construction of the Other in virtual worlds. In Polman, J. L., Kyza, E. A., O’Neill, D. K., Tabak, I., Penuel, W. R., Jurow, A. S., O’Connor, K., Lee, T. & D’Amico, L. (Eds.), Learning and Becoming in Practice: The International Conference of the Learning Sciences (ICLS) 2014, 3 (p.1757).

    Rappa, N. A. (2013, July). Appropriating the literacy practices of the Other in a virtual world. The 49th UKLA International Conference: Literacy Policies and Practices: Diverse perspectives in the twenty-first century, 49 (pp.11-24).