Peter Spencer  from Murdoch University in Perth Australia.

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    Dr Peter Spencer
    BSc, PhD (James Cook University, Queensland)

    Lecturer (Level D)

    About me

    I head the Wildlife DNA Laboratory in the School of Veterinary & Life Sciences

    I graduated with a degree in Marine Biology and Tropical Zoology from James Cook University in North Queensland and then completed a PhD in the Departments of Tropical Environmental Studies and Zoology. My study looked at the popuation ecology, social genetics and mating biology of the Allied Rock wallaby (Petrogale assimilis), using the [then] new technique of DNA Fingerprinting.  After completing my PhD, I then travelled to Germany, and spent a year at the University of Göttingen, followed by a post-doc with the Marsupial CRC (Perth Zoo).

    My research has ranged from the development and application of molecular markers (mainly microsatellites) to the study of endangered and threatened species of marsupials – and lots of other animals. I have a broad interest in the molecular ecology of vertebrates including studies of sexual selection, mating, population genetics and taxonomy, with particular emphasis on how genetic information can be used in conservation management of Western Australian fauna.

    My current research interests are firstly in conservation, epidemiology and disease modelling based on Australian mammals and feral animal genetics. These have been large projects where we made DNA profiles for over 1000 pigs, 1200 camels, 1000 mice and 1000 feral cats.  I also have a range of projects investigating conservation genetic questions in many native species.

    Recent advances in the use of Massive parrallel DNA sequencing (or NextGen sequencing) has been adopted in projects such as the mulgara (Dasycercus sp.), (Pilbara) olive python, box and Irukandji jellyfish, numbat and ghost bat.

    I have a long association withadopting DNA profiling and forensics.  I focus on the development of laboratory best practice for the application of DNA technology in wildlife forensics.  This work has attracted interest from industry participants, and our lab is a foundation member of the Society for Wildlife Forensic Science.

    Teaching area

    I teach in the areas of molecular ecology, conservation biology and forensics.  I coordinate two, final year undergraduate courses;

    Conservation Biology (BIO368)

    Forensic DNA Analysis (BIO313)

    and contribute to other courses at Murdoch University such as Introduction to Forensic Science (PEC103), Bodies of Evidence (BIO215) and Ecology (ENV268) .

    I have lectured at other universities in teaching areas of Restoration Management, Ecosystem Management, Wildlife Management, Ecological Principles, Biological Statistics, Genetics Human Evolution and Molecular Biology

    Research areas

    The Wildlife Identification Laboratory is working on a range of native species as well as invasive pest vertebrates. We are using genetic information, in combination with approximate Bayesian statistics to investigate the population dynamics of conservation-dependent and pest species

    The labis well resourced with a range of high-end genetic instrumentation and techical tools, including DNA sequencing, fragment analysis, next generation sequencing. We are also strong in the analysis and statistical interpretation of population genetic data.

    The lab also as substantial collection of DNA & genetic samples. We currently have over 5,500 mammal samples, from over 150 native species. There are also >2,800 reptile and 1,500 bird samples available for analysis.

    Current and past projects

    • Microsatellite development for conservation projects
    • Whale and dolphin identification
    • Identifying birdstrike hazards (birds hitting airplanes)
    • Using Ancient DNA in conservation of endangered fauna
    • DNA profiling for the forensic and wildlife identification of black cockatoos
    • Regulation of spacing within wild populations of the feral mouse
    • Conservation Genetics of the Quokka
    • Identifying kangaroos using poo
    • The origin of feral cats in Australia
    • Phylo-geographic structure within Phascogale
    • Molecular ecology of the critically endangered Mala
    • Biodiversity of the Abrolhos and Kimberley regions

    Current projects

    The lab and people working in it are researching a range of native species and invasive pest vertebrates.  We are using genetic information, in combination with approximate Bayesian statistics to investigate the population dynamics of introduced and Australian wildlife.

     Native species and conservation genetics projects

    • Kimberley island biogeography projects:  These projects document the morphology and genetics of island and mainland populations of representative vertebrate species, including iconic species such as the northern quoll, Kimberley rock rat, Ctenotus inornatus.
    •  Microsatellite development for conservation projects
    • Whale and dolphin identification
    • Identifying bird-strike hazards (birds hitting airplanes in the NT and Queensland)
    • DNA profiling for the forensic and wildlife identification of pythons
    • Conservation genetics of the quokka
    • Abrolhos biodiversity:  The Abrolhos islands are referred to as “Australia’s Galapagos”. We have a number of projects are comparing the biodiversity of the Abrolhos islands with those of the Bonaparte Archipelago vertebrates in the Pilbara, west coast of Western Australia and eastern Indonesia

    Invasive species genetic projects;

    • The origin of wild cats in Australia & their population ecology
    • Parentage testing in racing camels & ecology and origin of wild camels
    • Feral pig ecology
    • Invasion dynamics of rainbow lorikeets
    • Feral goat ecology

    Awards and grants

    2003    Meat and Livestock Australia, Travel Fellowship
    2001    Australian Academy of Sciences, International Research Fellow, Germany
    1986    Finalist: Bollinger Award, Australian Mammal Society (runner-up)

    Research grants

    Pilbara Olive Python (Pilbara) genetics ($50,000)
    Northern Quoll (Pilbara) genetics ($100,000)
    Mulgara (Pilbara) genetics ($85,000)
    Starling diets, NextGen sequencing ($5,000)
    Kimberley biodiversity project (with L. Schmitt, R. How; $260,000)

    Pilbara genetics ($100,000)
    Northern quoll genetics ($16,000)
    Mine rehabilitation genetics (with Luis Minjnos; $5,000)

    Developing molecular tools for wildlife forensics (MU, with MBunce) $35,000
    Racing camel genetics $60,000

    Assets at Risk from feral camels ($200,000)
    Developing tools for python forensics ($42,000)
    Genetics of the northern quolls of Kimberley Island ($73,000)
    Developing molecular tools for wildlife forensics (MU, with M. Bunce $25,000)
    Cockatoos smuggling and DNA detection ($6,000)
    Global positioning systems and the movement of camels ($12,500)
    Combating biological invasions: combining genetic and ecological weapons (ARC Linkage: Sherwin, Clark & Spencer $343,000)

    Feral cats genetics ($20,000)
    Invasive species – birds ($40,000)
    Invasive species – feral cats ($60,000)
    Controlling feral camels ($200,000)
    WA Preparative Chromatography Facility for Proteins, Peptides, Molecular & Geochemistry Markers, Natural Products and Water Re-use (ARC-LEIF Trengrove; $494,000)
    Conservation genetics of the Woylie ($10,000)
    The identity, conservation & management of island and mainland reptiles in the Kimberley, Western Australia (with L. Schmitt, R. How; $97 800)

    Bird forensics ($5,000)
    Quantifying the movement of camels ($19,000)

    Genetics and the decline of the woylie ($7,000)
    The nature, diversity and potential impact of infectious agents in Western Australian threatened mammals (ARC Linkage $435,354)
    Forensic consultancies ($10,400)
    Development of Black cockatoo markers ($7,500)
    Conservation significance of the Barrow island mouse ($7,700)
    Phylogeography of northern quolls ($6,900)
    Ringtail fragmentation ($50,000)
    Quantifying the movement of camels ($44,000)

    Terrestrial Fauna Conservation Node (CALM proponent $1,559,000)

    Birdstrikes and wildlife forensics ($14,000)
    Feral pigs and pest animal management ($240,000)

    Management and disease preparedness of feral pigs ($48,000)
    Conservation genetics of WA endangered wildlife ($12,000)
    Special research allocation ($15,000)
    Molecular genetics of feral pigs in water catchments ($28,000)

    Conservation genetics of endangered wildlife ($20,000)
    Population genetics of the Barramundi ($16,000)
    Forensic genetics of Carnaby’s Black cockatoo ($5,800)
    Molecular ecology of wildlife and marsupials ($15,000)
    Molecular detection of Haemobartonella in cats ($9000)
    Forensics identification of birds ($6000)

    Conservation and Ancient DNA ($6,100)
    Conservation of WA wildlife and marsupials ($15,000)
    Conservation genetics of endangered fauna (WA $12,000)

    A molecular approach to fauna conservation (ARC $58,000)
    Molecular ecology of WA marsupials ($13,000)
    Microsatellites in black bream ($15,000)

    Events and speaking engagements

    Major Documentaries

    • 2006    WILDLIFE FORENSICS (ABC Natural History Wildlife documentary)
    • 2003    TEN MILLION CATS (Documentary, Wild visuals / Discovery Channel)
    • 2000    FERAL CATS (Discovery channel/ABC Natural History Unit)
    • 1988    A RARE BREED – PERTH ZOO (Channel 10 documentary)
    • 1996    ROCK OPERA (ABC Natural History Wildlife documentary)

    Professional and community service

    Popular Press and public interviews


    Date Media source General title
    2010 ABC TV, 7:30 Report (National coverage) CSI for Wildlife (
    2008 West Australian SW quokka find may help genetic research (Dec)
    2007 ABC TV – StateLine Illegal dumping of pigs
    Biosecurity in Agriculture Pig control (Dec 2007)
    ABC Science Online Pig hunters helping to spread disease
    ABC Country Hour (774 Melbourne) Illegal movement and disease risk by feral pests
    The Longreach Leader DNA and wild pig forensics
    ABC Rural report DNA helps in hunt for wild pig traffickers
    ABC regional – southern goldfields Disease spread by illegal dumping of pigs
    2006 ABC Regional – Karratha Camels to cop-it
    ABC North West WA rural report Crime scene camels
    West Australian Pigs illegally dumped by shooters
    2004 ABC National Illegal dumping of feral pigs
    ABC Science Marsupial Gondwana separation
    South Western Times (regional news) “Pigs released for hunting”
    Sunday Times “Hunt for pig thrill killers”
    GWN Regional Radio Feral pig genetics
    2003 West Australian Quokka island integrity
    6PR Talkback Radio interview, quokkas on Rottenest island
    CALM Land for Wildlife How ancient DNA was able to identify the extinct rock- wallaby on Depuch Island Western Wildlife 7: 3-4.
    2002 ABC Education TV ancient DNA
    2001 Nature Australia DNA and new species
    2000 ABC Environmental News in Science) “Genetic Research Reveals New Species”  (
    The Australian Scientists pull new phascogale out of the hat
    West Australian Old specimens give new clues
    West Australian DNA reveals new species
    Canberra Times Phascogale
    ABC Radio Phascogale radio interview
    BBC Wildlife Magazine Phascogale radiation
    1999 The Sunday Times Cat scan
    1996 Townsville Bulletin Wallabies do best with a bit on the side
    1992 Townsville Bulletin Avert a catastrophe: put a price on their heads


    Doctoral and masters supervisions

    I have had some fantastic undergraduate and postgraduate students working in the laboratory.  I see my role as assisting in their supervision, logistical/academic mentoring and the introduction of molecular methods in conservation projects to assist students with their projects and studies.

    Name CompletionDate Thesis topic
    Doctor of Philosophy
    Dixon, R 2012 Ecology of seaweed, Sargassum.
    Webster I 2012 Conservation of the inshore bottlenose and spinner dolphins of the Mauritius islands
    White N 2011 Taxonomy of the black cockatoos
    Pacioni C 2010 Ecology and epidemiology associated with the decline of the Woylie
    Sutherland D 2004 Regulation of spacing within wild populations of the feral House mouse, Mus domesticus.
    Mills H 2004 Reproductive and molecular ecology of the Dibbler.
    Hampton J - Managing assets at risk from the invasive camel (withdrawn)
    Chavand O - Molecular ecology of feral cats (withdrawn)
    Master of Science
    Jose Luis Mijangos enrolled Restoration genetics in production landscapes
    McInnes L 2006 Development of DNA profiling methodologies using microsatellite markers for the forensic and wildlife identification of black cockatoos (Family Calyptorhynci).
    Williams J 1998 Development of microsatellite markers for the Chuditch (D. geoffreii: Western quoll).
    Harradine E 2012 Biogeography of Ctenotus in the Kimberley islands
    Wilson K 2009 Conservation of the western ringtail possum
    McKlay E 2008 Obtaining DNA from non-traditional sources
    White N 2006 Conservation significance of the Barrow Island Mouse
    Male K 2006 Barcoding Australian cockattos and parrots
    Hampton J 2003 Molecular ecology of feral pigs in the southwest of Western Australia.
    Alacs E 2001 Population fragmentation in the quokka, Setonix brachyurus.
    Harrup L - The use of DNA Fingerprinting to detect extra-pair paternity in short-tailed in sheawaters (withdrawn)
    Thompson B 2000 Cross species amplification of microsatellites developed for the water rat in Australian native rodents.
    Bentley S 2000 Evidence of sperm competition as a component of sexual selection in the Honey possum, Tarsipes rostratus.
    Bryant K 1999   Geographical variation in the Honey Possum Tarsipes rostratus.
    Hinds F 1999 Identification of microsatellite DNA markers for genetic studies of the Water rat, Hydromys chrysogaster.
    Daglish R 1998 The development of microsatellites to examine the mating systems in Crocodylus porosus: Do females have multiple partners?
    Independent Study Contract (ISC)
    Chambers, T 2012 Evaluating New Technology for Rapid Screening ofMicrosatellite Markers for Western AustralianZephyrarchaea species (Archaeidae)
    McLauglin C 2004 Development of wildlife forensic techniques for pythons.
    Bryant K 1997 The extraction and amplification of DNA from museum specimens.
    Students (supervision, but not with formal association)
    Hamilton Z 2012 Hybridisation of land snails in the Pilbara
    Hulme-Moir L 2005 Functional mechanisms in the blood of macropods (PhD, MU)
    Wicks R 2004 Haematological changes in the bandicoot (Hons, MU)
    Helen Owen 2004 Rickettsial parasites in Australian native species(PhD, MU)
    Pagano M 2001 Genetic structure of Barramundi in northern WA (Hons, MU)
    Lamont C 2001 Genetic sexing of gulls (PhD, Murdoch)
    Bryant K 2000 Mating systems in the Honey Possum (PhD, Murdoch)
    LeBas N 1998 Microsatellite markers for a lizard (PhD, UWA)
    Yap E 1998 Microsatellite markers for the black bream and crab (PhD, MU)
    Imgrund J 1998 Microsatellite data analysis for marron in WA (PhD, CUT)



    • Krutzen, M., Beasley, I., Ackermann, C., Lieckfeldt, D., Ludwig, A., Ryan, G., Bejder, L., Parra, G., Wolfensberger, R., Spencer, P., (2018), Demographic collapse and low genetic diversity of the Irrawaddy dolphin population inhabiting the Mekong River, PLoS One, 13, 1, pages 1 - 16.
    • Eldridge, M., Neaves, L., Spencer, P., (2018), Genetic analysis of three remnant populations of the rufous hare-wallaby (Lagorchestes hirsutus) in arid Australia, Australian Mammalogy, online, , pages -.
    • Minjanos, J., Pacioni, C., Spencer, P., Hillyer, M., Craig, M., (2017), Characterizing the post-recolonization of Antechinus flavipes and its genetic implications in a production forest landscape, Restoration Ecology, online (doi: 10.1111/rec.12493), doi: 10.1111/rec.12493, pages -.
    • Spencer, P., Sandover, S., Nihill, K., Wale, C., How, R., Schmitt, L., (2017), Living in isolation: ecological, demographic and geneticpatterns in northern AustraliaÂÂs top marsupial predatoron Koolan Island, Australian Mammalogy, 39, 1, pages 17 - 27.
    • Pacioni, C., Williams, M., Lacy, R., Spencer, P., Wayne, A., (2017), Predators and genetic fitness: key threatening factors for the conservation of a bettong species, Pacific Conservation Biology: a journal dedicated to conservation and wildlife management in the Pacific region, 23, 2, pages 200 - 212.
    • Cremona, T., Spencer, P., Shine, R., Webb, J., (2017), Avoiding the last supper: parentage analysis indicates multigenerational survival of re-introduced 'toad-smart' lineage, Conservation Genetics, 18, 6, pages 1475 - 1480.
    • Spencer, P., Yurchenko, A., David, A., Scott, R., Koepfli, K., Driscoll, C., Obrien, S., Menotti-Raymond, M., (2016), The population origins and expansion of feral cats in Australia, Journal of Heredity, 107, 2, pages 104 - 114.
    • Hohnen, R., Tuft, K., Legge, S., Hillyer, M., Spencer, P., Radford, I., Johnson, C., Burridge, C., (2016), Rainfall and topography predict gene flow among populations of the declining northern quoll (Dasyurus hallucatus), Conservation Genetics, 17, 5, pages 1213 - 1228.
    • Ellis, R., Spencer, P., Doody, J., Parkin, T., (2016), A significant south-western range extension for the desert mouse (Pseudomys desertor) in Western Australia, Australian Mammalogy, 38, 1, pages 120 - 123.
    • Mijangos, J., Pacioni, C., Spencer, P., Craig, M., (2015), Contribution of genetics to ecological restoration, Molecular Ecology, 24, 1, pages 22 - 37.
    • Spencer, P., Hampton, J., Pacioni, C., Kennedy, M., Saalfeld, K., Rose, K., Woolnough, A., (2015), Genetic Relationships Within Social Groups Influence the Application of the Judas Technique: A Case Study with Wild Dromedary Camels, The Journal of Wildlife Management, 79, 1, pages 102 - 111.
    • Mijangos, L., Pacioni, C., Spencer, P., Craig, M., (2015), Contribution of genetics to ecological restoration, Molecular Ecology, 24, 1, pages 22 - 37.
    • Harradine, E., Andrew, M., Thomas, J., How, R., Schmitt, L., Spencer, P., (2015), Importance of dispersal routes that minimize open-ocean movement to the genetic structure of island populations, Conservation Biology, 29, 6, pages 1704 - 1714.
    • Harradine, E., How, R., Schmitt, L., Spencer, P., (2015), Island size and remoteness have major conservation significance for how spatial diversity is partitioned in skinks, Biodiversity and Conservation, 24, 8, pages 2011 - 2029.
    • Krawiec, J., Krauss, S., Davis, R., Spencer, P., (2015), Weak genetic structuring suggests historically high genetic connectivity among recently fragmented urban populations of the scincid lizard, Ctenotus fallens, Australian Journal of Zoology, 63, 4, pages 279 - 286.
    • Haouchar, D., Haile, J., Spencer, P., Bunce, M., (2013), The identity of the Depuch Island rock-wallaby revealed through ancient DNA, Australian Mammalogy, 35, 1, pages 101 - 106.
    • Holyoake, C., Holley, D., Spencer, P., Salagado-Kent, C., Coughran, D., Bejder, L., (2013), NORTHERNMOST RECORD OF SHEPHERD S BEAKED WHALE TASMACETUS SHEPHERDI A MORPHOLOGICAL AND GENETIC DESCRIPTION FROM A STRANDING FROM SHARK BAY WESTERN AUSTRALIA, Pacific Conservation Biology: a journal dedicated to conservation and wildlife management in the Pacific region, 19, 2, pages 169 - 174.
    • Harradine, E., How, R., Schmitt, L., de Hass, C., Spencer, P., (2013), Isolation and characterisation of 36 polymorphic microsatellite markers using 454 sequencing in the bar-shouldered skink, Ctenotus inornatus, Conservation Genetics Resources, 5, 1, pages 207 - 210.
    • Pacioni, C., Wayne, A., Spencer, P., (2013), Genetic outcomes from the translocations of the critically endangered woylie, Current Zoology, 59, 3, pages 294 - 310.
    • Spencer, P., Marshall, K., (2013), Food forensics in the human and pet-food industry: Use of a simple technology to identify commercially important species of kangaroos from Western Australia, Journal of Forensic Research, 4, 3, pages 190 - 194.
    • Spencer, P., Giustiniano, D., Hampton, J., Gee, P., Burrows, N., Rose, I., Martin, G., Woolnough, A., (2012), Identification and Management of a Single Large Population of Wild Dromedary Camels, The Journal of Wildlife Management, 76, 6, pages 1254 - 1263.
    • Dixon, R., Huisman, J., Buchanan, J., Gurgel, C., Spencer, P., (2012), A MORPHOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR STUDY OF AUSTRAL SARGASSUM (FUCALES, PHAEOPHYCEAE) SUPPORTS THE RECOGNITION OF PHYLLOTRICHA AT GENUS LEVEL, WITH FURTHER ADDITIONS TO THE GENUS SARGASSOPSIS, Journal of Phycology: an international journal of algal research, 48, 5, pages 1119 - 1129.
    • Coghlan, M., White, N., Parkinson, L., Haile, J., Spencer, P., Bunce, M., (2012), Egg forensics: An appraisal of DNA sequencing to assist in species identification of illegally smuggled eggs, Forensic Science International: Genetics, 6, 2, pages 268 - 273.
    • Alacs, E., Spencer, P., De Tores, P., Krauss, S., (2011), Population genetic structure of island and mainland populations of the quokka, Setonix brachyurus (Macropodidae): a comparison of AFLP and microsatellite markers, Conservation Genetics, 12, 1, pages 297 - 309.
    • White, N., Phillips, M., Gilbert, M., Alfaro-Nunez, A., Willerslev, E., Mawson, P., Spencer, P., Bunce, M., (2011), The evolutionary history of cockatoos (Aves: Psittaciformes: Cacatuidae), Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 59, 3, pages 615 - 622.
    • Pacioni, C., Wayne, A., Spencer, P., (2011), Effects of habitat fragmentation on population structure and long-distance gene flow in an endangered marsupial: The woylie, Journal of Zoology, 283, 2, pages 98 - 107.
    • Allentoft, M., Oskam, C., Houston, J., Hale, M., Gilbert, M., Rasmussen, M., Spencer, P., Jacomb, C., Willerslev, E., Holdaway, R., Bunce, M., (2011), Profiling the Dead: Generating Microsatellite Data from Fossil Bones of Extinct Megafauna-Protocols, Problems, and Prospects, PLoS One, 6, 1, pages -.
    • Spencer, P., Pacioni, C., (2010), Capturing genetic information using non-target species markers in a species that has undergone a population crash, Australian Mammalogy, 32, 1, pages 33 - 38.
    • Spencer, P., Woolnough, A., (2010), Assessment and genetic characterisation of Australian camels using microsatellite polymorphisms, Livestock Science, 129, 1-3, pages 241 - 245.
    • Spencer, P., Wilson, K., Tinson, A., (2010), Parentage testing of racing camels (Camelus dromedarius) using microsatellite DNA typing, Animal Genetics, 41, 6, pages 662 - 665.
    • Wilson, K., deTores, P., Spencer, P., (2009), Isolation and characterisation of polymorphic microsatellite markers in the western ringtail possum, Pseudocheirus occidentalis, Conservation Genetics, 1, 1, pages 123 - 125.
    • How, R., Spencer, P., Schmitt, L., (2009), Island populations have high conservation value fornorthern Australia's top marsupial predator ahead of athreatening process, Journal of Zoology, 278, 3, pages 206 - 217.
    • Spencer, P., Schmidt, D., Hummel, S., (2009), Identification of historical specimens and wildlife seizures originating from highly degraded sources of kangaroos and other macropods, Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology, 6, 3, pages 225 - 232.
    • Allentoft, M., Holdaway, R., Hale, M., McLay, E., Oskam, C., Gilbert, T., Spencer, P., Willerslev, E., Bunce, M., (2009), Identification of microsatellites from an extinct moa species using high-throughput (454) sequence data, BioTechniques: the journal of laboratory technology for bioresearch, 46, 3, pages 195 - 200.
    • Salinas, M., Bunce, M., Cancilla, D., Alpers, D., Spencer, P., (2009), Divergent lineages in the heath mouse (Pseudomys shortridgei) are indicative of major contraction to geographically isolated refugia on the eastern and western sides of Australia during the early Pleistocene, Australian Journal of Zoology, 57, , pages 41 - 47.
    • Spencer, P., Cardoso, R., How, R., Williams, J., Bunce, M., Schmitt, L., (2007), Cross-species amplification at microsatellite loci in Australian quolls including the description of five new markers from the Chuditch (Dasyurus geoffroii) and cross-species amplification in other Dasyurids, Molecular Ecology Resources, 6, 7, pages 1100 - 1103.
    • Clark, P., Spencer, P., (2007), Description of three novel species of Theileria Bettencourt, Franca & Borges, 1907 from Macropodoidea in Western Australia, Royal Society of South Australia. Transactions, 131, 1, pages 100 - 106.
    • Spencer, P., Hampton, J., Lapidge, S., Mitchell, J., Lee, J., Pluske, J., (2006), An assessment of the genetic diversity and structure within and among populations of wild pigs (Sus scrofa) from Australia and Papua New Guinea, Journal of Genetics, 1, 85, pages 63 - 66.
    • Hulme-Moir, K., Clark, P., Spencer, P., (2006), Effects of temperature and duration of sample storage on the haematological characteristics of western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus), Australian Veterinary Journal, 84, 4, pages 143 - 147.
    • Hampton, J., Spencer, P., Elliot, A., Thompson, R., (2006), Prevalence of Zoonotic Pathogens from Feral Pigs in Major Public Drinking Water Catchments in Western Australia, EcoHealth: conservation medicine: human health: ecosystem sustainability, 3, , pages 103 - 108.
    • Wicks, R., Spencer, P., Moolhuijzen, P., Clark, P., (2006), Morphological and molecular characteristics of a species of Hepatozoon, Miller 1908 (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina) from the blood of Isoodon obesulus (Marsupialia: Peramelidae) in Western Australia, Systematic Parasitology, 65, , pages 19 - 25.
    • Clark, P., Spencer, P., (2006), Haematological characteristics of wild quokka (Setonix brachyurus), Comparative Clinical Pathology, 15, , pages 82 - 86.
    • Spencer, P., Hampton, J., (2005), Illegal translocation and genetic structure of feral pigs in Western Australia., The Journal of Wildlife Management, 69, 1, pages 377 - 384.
    • Spencer, P., Lapidge, S., Hampton, J., Pluske, J., (2005), The sociogenetic structure of a controlled feral pig population, Wildlife Research, 32, , pages 297 - 304.
    • Sutherland, D., Spencer, P., Singleton, G., Taylor, A., (2005), Kin interactions and changing social structure during a population outbreak of feral house mice., Molecular Ecology, 14, 9, pages 2803 - 2814.
    • Hampton, J., Higgs, T., Knight, T., Spencer, P., (2005), DNA-based detection of free-ranging pigs of domestic origin in Western Australia, Ecological Management & Restoration, 6, 1, pages 76 - 78.
    • McInnes, L., Dadour, I., Stewart, M., Ditcham, W., Mawson, P., Spencer, P., (2005), Characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers for theCarnaby's cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus latirostris) and related black cockatoo species, Molecular Ecology Resources, 5, 3, pages 504 - 506.
    • Hampton, J., Spencer, P., Alpers, D., Twigg, L., Woolnough, A., Doust, J., Higgs, T., Pluske, J., (2004), Molecular techniques, wildlife management and the importance of genetic population structure and dispersal: a case study with feral pigs., Journal of Applied Ecology: ecology with management relevance, 2, 41, pages 735 - 743.
    • Gongora, J., Fleming, P., Spencer, P., Mason, R., Garkavenko, O., Meyer, J., Droegemueller, C., Lee, J., Moran, C., (2004), PhylogeneticrelationshipsofAustralianandNewZealandferalpigsassessedbymitochondrial control region sequence and nuclear GPIP genotype, Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 2, 33, pages 339 - 348.
    • Eldridge, M., Kinnear, J., Zenger, K., McKenzie, L., Spencer, P., (2004), Genetic diversity in remnant mainland and 'pristine' island populations of three endemic Australian macropodids (Marsupialia): Macropus eugenii, Lagorchestes hirsutus and Petrogale lateralis., Conservation Genetics, 5, 3, pages 325 - 338.
    • Spencer, P., (2004), A preliminary genetic study of the social biology of feral pigs in the south-western Australia and the implication for management, Wildlife Research, 4, 33, pages 375 - 381.
    • Mills, H., Moro, D., Spencer, P., (2004), Conservation significance of island versus mainland populations: a case study of dibblers (Parantechinus apicalis) in Western Australia., Animal Conservation: the rapid publication journal for quantitative studies in conservation, 4, 7, pages 387 - 395.
    • Nilsson, M., Arnason, U., Spencer, P., Janke, A., (2004), Marsupial relationships and a timeline for marsupial radiation in South Gondwana, Gene, 2, 340, pages 189 - 196.
    • Hampton, J., Pluske, J., Spencer, P., (2004), A preliminary genetic study of the social biology of feral pigs in the south-western Australia and the implication for management., Wildlife Research, 4, 33, pages 375 - 381.
    • Spencer, P., Woolnough, A., (2004), Size should matter: Distribution and genetic considerations for pest animal management., Ecological Management & Restoration, 3, 5, pages 220 - 222.
    • Crowther, M., Spencer, P., Alpers, D., Dickman, C., (2003), Taxonomic status of the Mardo, Antechinus flavipes leucogaster (Marsupialia : Dasyuridae): A morphological, molecular, reproductive and bioclimatic approach, Australian Journal of Zoology, 50, 3, pages 627 - 647.
    • Mills, H., Spencer, P., (2003), Polymorphic microsatellites identified in an endangered dasyurid marsupial, the dibbler (Parantechinus apicalis)., Molecular Ecology, 3, 1, pages 218 - 220.
    • Alacs, E., Alpers, D., de, T., Dillon, M., Spencer, P., (2003), Identifying the presence of Quokkas (Setonix brachyurus) using cytochrome b analyses from faeces collected in the field., Wildlife Research, 30, 1, pages 41 - 47.
    • Spencer, P., (2003), Detection by PCR and isolation assays of the anaerobic intestinal spirochete Brachyspira aalborgi from the feces of captive nonhuman primates, Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 41, 3, pages 1187 - 1191.
    • Alacs, E., Alpers, D., deTores, P., Dillon, M., Spencer, P., (2003), Identifying the presence of Quokkas (Setonix brachyurus) using cytochrome b analyses from faeces collected in the field, Wildlife Research, 30, 1, pages 40 - 47.
    • Alpers, D., Gaikhorst, G., Lambert, C., Fletcher, T., Spencer, P., (2003), An extension to the known range of the Desert Mouse, Pseudomys desertor into the Great Victoria Desert, Western Australia., Australian Mammalogy, 25, 2, pages 95 - 96.
    • Moro, D., Spencer, P., (2003), Microsatellite primers for the Western Pebble-mound Mouse (Pseudomys chapmani) that show cross amplification for other species of Australian rodent., Molecular Ecology, 3, 3, pages 259 - 261.
    • Spencer, P., Fletcher, T., Woolley, P., (2003), Microsatellite markers from the Julia Creek dunnart, Sminthopsis douglasi (Marsupialia: Dasyuridae)., Molecular Ecology, 3, 1, pages 570 - 571.
    • Hinds, F., Close, R., Campbell, M., Spencer, P., (2002), Characterisation of polymorphic microsatellite markers in the water rat (Hydromys chrysogaster), Molecular Ecology, 11, , pages 42 - 44.
    • Hinds, F., Close, R., Campbell, M., Spencer, P., (2002), Characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers in the water rat (Hydromys chrysogaster), Molecular Ecology, 11, 3, pages 42 - 44.
    • Clark, P., Foster, S., Spencer, P., (2002), Detection of Haemobartonella felis in Australia that is similar to the ohio strain., Australian Veterinary Journal, 80, , pages 703 - 704.
    • Crowther, M., Spencer, P., Alpers, D., Dickman, C., (2002), Taxonomic status of the mardo, Antechinus flavipes leucogaster (Marsupialia : Dasuridae): a morphological, molecular, reproductive and bioclamatic approach., Australian Journal of Zoology, 50, , pages 627 - 647.
    • Spencer, P., (2002), Isolation and characterisation of microsatellite loci in Portunus pelagicus (Crustacea: Portunidae), Molecular Ecology Resources, 1, 2, pages 30 - 32.
    • LeBas, L., Spencer, P., (2000), Polymorphic microsatellite markers in the ornate dragon lizard, Ctenophorus ornatus, Molecular Ecology, 9, 3, pages 365 - 366.
    • Spencer, P., Marsh, H., Horsup, A., (1999), Enhancement of reproductive success in a social rock-wallaby, Petrogale assimilis (Macropodidae) as revealed by microsatellite markers., Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 43, 1, pages 1 - 9.
    • Eldridge, M., King, J., Loupis, A., Spencer, P., Taylor, A., Pope, L., Hall, G., (1999), Unprecedented low levels of genetic variation and inbreeding depression in an island population of the black-footed rock-wallaby, Conservation Biology, 13, 3, pages 341 - 351.
    • Spencer, P., Adams, M., Marsh, H., Miller, D., Eldridge, M., (1997), High levels of genetic variability in an isolated colony of rock wallabies (Petrogale assimilis): Evidence from three classes of molecular markers, Australian Journal of Zoology, 45, 2, pages 199 - 210.
    • Spencer, P., Marsh, H., (1997), Microsatellite DNA fingerprinting confirms dizygotic twinning and paternity in the allied rock wallaby, Petrogale assimilis (Marsupialia: Macropodidae), Australian Mammalogy, 19, 2, pages 279 - 280.
    • Eldridge, M., Spencer, P., (1997), The sources and uses of genetic material in the study of Petrogale and other mammals, Australian Mammalogy, 19, 2, pages 265 - 278.


    • Graham, B., Spencer, P., Bunce, M., Trengove, R., (2006),Identification of bear bile products using GC-MS and LC-MS,In: INTERACT 2006.