Sam Abraham  from Murdoch University in Perth Australia.

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    Associate Professor Sam Abraham
    BSc, MSc, PhD

    Associate Professor in Microbiology

    About me

    I grew up in Kerala, in the south west of India. In 2006, I received my BSc, in Zoology from Mahatma Gandhi University in Kerala. Shortly after, I moved to Australia in pursuit of higher education and joined the University of Wollongong to undertake a Masters in Biotechnology. Subsequently, I completed a PhD in Micro and Molecular Biology from  the University of Wollongong (2012) undertaking my research at the Elizabeth Macarthur Agricultural Research Institute, New South Wales Department of Primary Industries. In 2012, I moved to the University of Adelaide, to undertake a post-doctoral research fellowship in Antimicrobial Resistance with A/Prof. Darren Trott. Along with A/Prof. Trott, I established the First National Network on Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance in Australian Animals. In 2015, I joined Murdoch University as an academic lecture in microbiology.

    Teaching area

    I teach veterinary and medical microbiology and antimicrobial resistance at Murdoch University.

    Research areas

    My research is focused on antimicrobial resistance in zoonotic bacterial pathogens. I also focus on the effects of critical antimicrobials on the microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract, antimicrobial resistance surveillance, horizontal gene transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes and ecology and evolution of zoonotic pathogens.

    Research Expertise:

    1. Antimicrobial resistance in zoonotic pathogens such as E. coli, Salmonella and coagulase positive staphylococci (MRSA & MRSP)
    2. Antimicrobial resistance surveillance
    3. Bacterial and antimicrobial resistance typing using whole genome sequencing and other molecular techniques
    4. Diagnostic microbiology
    5. Contract research with pharmaceutical industries for antimicrobial susceptibility testing.

    Links with Industry Partners:

    I have extensive experience in working with Industry
    partners such as New South Wales Department of Primary Industries, Zoetis
    (formerly, Pfizer Animal Health), Novartis, International Animal Health
    Products and start-up companies working on new antimicrobials. I also work
    closely with Australian network of Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratories.

    Research Collaborations:

    I collaborate with a number of national and international researchers

    International Collaborators: Prof. James R Johnson (University of Minnesota), Prof. John Fairbrother (University of Montreal)

    National Collaborators: A/Prof. Geoffrey Coombs (Fiona Stanley Hospital), A.Prof. Darren Trott, (University of Adelaide), Prof. John Turnidge (University of Adelaide), A.Prof. David Jordan (NSW DPI), Prof. Mary Barton (University of South Australia), Prof. David Gordon (Australian National University), A/Prof. Jacqui Norris (University of Sydney), Dr. Mark O’Dea (Murdoch University) and Dr. Mitchell D. Groves (Safe Food QLD)



    Book Chapters

    1. Chin J, Abraham S, Zhang R & Al-Jassim R. (2010), ‘Diarrheagenic escherichia coli pathotypes (DEP) including enterohaemorrhagic (EHEC)/Shiga-toxin E. coli (STEC)’, PCR for Clinical Microbiology: An Australian and International Perspective, pp. 149- 155, doi:10.1007/978-90-481-9039-3_15

    Refereed Journal Articles

    1. Abraham S, Sahibzada S, Hewson K, Laird T, Abraham R, Pavic A, Truswell A, Lee T, O’Dea M & Jordan D (2020), Emergence of Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli among Australian Chickens in the Absence of Fluoroquinolone Use’, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 86 (8), e2765-19,

    2. Sahibzada S, Pang S, Hernández-Jover M, Jordan D, Abraham S, O’Dea M & Heller J (2020) Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of MRSA across different pig age groups in an intensive pig production system in Australia’, Zoonoses and Public Health, doi:10.1111/zph.12721

    3. Kidsley A, O’Dea M, Ebrahimie E, Mohammadi-Dehcheshmeh M, Saputra S, Jordan D, Johnson JR, Gordon D, Turni C, Djordjevic SP, Abraham S± & Darren J. Trott 2020, ‘Genomic analysis of fluoroquinolone-susceptible phylogenetic group B2 extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli causing infections in cats’, Veterinary Microbiology, 245,108685

    4. Lee T, Pang S, Stegger M, Sahibzada S, Abraham S, Daley D & Coombs GW (2020) A three-year whole genome sequencing perspective of Enterococcus faecium sepsis in Australia’, PLOS ONE, 15(2), e0228781,

    5. Abraham S, O’Dea M, Sahibzada S, Hewson K, Pavic A, Veltman T, Abraham R, Harris T, Trott DJ, Jordan S (2019) Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. isolated from Australian meat chickens remain susceptible to critically important antimicrobial agents  Plos One. 14 (10), e0224281

    6. *Mukerji S, Stegger M, Truswell AV, Laird T, Jordan D, Abraham RJ, Harb A, Barton M, O’Dea M,  Abraham S. (2019). Resistance to critically important antimicrobials in Australian silver gulls (Chroicocephalus novaehollandiae) and evidence of anthropogenic origins. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 74(9), 2566-2574.

    7. Canibe N, O’Dea M, & Abraham S. (2019). Potential relevance of pig gut content transplantation for production and research. Journal of animal science and biotechnology, 10(1), 55.

    8. *Badger S, Abraham S, Stryhnd H, Trotta DJ, Jordan D, Caraguel C (2019) Intra- and inter-laboratory agreement of the disc diffusion assay for assessing antimicrobial susceptibility of porcine Escherichia coli, Preventative Vet Med: 104782

    9. Abraham RJ, Abraham S, Stevens AJ, Page SW, McCluskey A, Trott DJ, O’Handley RM. (2019). Aminoguanidines: New leads for treatment of Giardia duodenalis infection. International Journal for Parasitology: Drugs and Drug Resistance, 10, 38-44.

    10. *Asuming-Bediako N, Parry-Hanson Kunadu A, Abraham S, & Habib I. (2019). Campylobacter at the Human–Food Interface: The African Perspective. Pathogens, 8(2), 87.

    11. *Harb A, O’Dea M, Abraham S, & Habib I. (2019). Childhood Diarrhoea in the Eastern Mediterranean Region with Special Emphasis on Non-Typhoidal Salmonella at the Human–Food Interface. Pathogens, 8(2), 60.

    12. *Badger S, Abraham S, O’Dea M, Saputra S, Abraham RJ, Worthing KA, Norris JM, Trott DJ, Jordan D, Caraguel CG. (2019). Diagnostic accuracy of phenotypic assays for determining antimicrobial resistance status in Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates from canine clinical cases. Veterinary Microbiology. 234, 101-109

    13. O’Dea M, Sahibzada S, Jordan D, Laird T, Lee T, Hewson K, Pang S, Abraham R, Coombs GW, Harris T, Pavic A, Abraham S. (2019). Genomic, antimicrobial resistance and public health insights into Enterococcus spp. from Australian chickens. Journal of clinical microbiology, JCM-00319.

    14. *Lee T, Pang S, Abraham S, Coombs GW. (2019). Antimicrobial-resistant CC17 Enterococcus faecium: the past, the present and the future. Journal of global antimicrobial resistance, 16, 36-47.

    15. *Harb A, Abraham S, Rusdi B, Laird T, O’Dea M, Habib I. (2019). Molecular Detection and Epidemiological Features of Selected Bacterial, Viral, and Parasitic Enteropathogens in Stool Specimens from Children with Acute Diarrhea in Thi-Qar Governorate, Iraq. International journal of environmental research and public health, 16(9), 1573.

    16. Coombs GW, Pang S, Daley DA, Lee YT, Abraham S, Leroi M. (2019). Severe disease caused by community-associated MRSA ST398 Type V, Australia, 2017. Emerg Infect Dis, 25(1), 190.

    17. Tenzin S, Ogunniyi DA, Khazandi M, Ferro S, Bartsch J, Crabb S, Abraham S, Deo P, Trott DJ, (2019) Decontamination of aerosolised bacteria from a pig farm environment using a pH neutral electrochemically activated solution (Ecas4 anolyte). Plos One 14: e0222765

    18. Sterndale SO, Evans DJ, Mansfield JP, Clarke J, Sahibzada S, Abraham S, O’Dea M, Miller DW, Kim JC, Pluske JR. (2019). Effect of mucin 4 allele on susceptibility to experimental infection with enterotoxigenic F4 Escherichia coli in pigs fed experimental diets. Journal of animal science and biotechnology, 10(1), 56.

    19. *Lee T, Pang S, Abraham S, Coombs GW. (2019). Molecular characterization and evolution of the first outbreak of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium in Western Australia. International journal of antimicrobial agents, 53(6), 814-819.

    20. Sodagari HR, Mohammed AB, Wang P, O’Dea M, Abraham S, Robertson I, Habib I. (2019). Non-typhoidal Salmonella contamination in egg shells and contents from retail in Western Australia: Serovar diversity, multilocus sequence types, and phenotypic and genomic characterizations of antimicrobial resistance. International journal of food microbiology, 108305.

    21. Strunk T, Gummer JPA, Abraham R, Abraham S, Hibbert J, Patole S, Currie A. (2019). Topical Coconut Oil Contributes to Systemic Monolaurin Levels in Very Preterm Infants. Neonatology. 116(3), 299-301

    22. Hampson DJ, Lugsomya K, La T, Phillips ND, Trott DJ, & Abraham S. (2018). Antimicrobial resistance in Brachyspira – An increasing problem for disease control. Vet Microbiol.

    23. Worthing KA, Schwendener S, Perreten V, Saputra, S, Coombs GW, Pang S, Davies MR, Abraham S, Trott DJ, Norris JM. (2018). Characterization of Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec Elements from Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius Infections in Australian Animals. mSphere. 3(6), e00491-18.

    24. *Al-Habsi K, Jordan D, Harb A, Laird T, Yang R, O’Dea M, Jacobson C, Miller DW, Ryan U, Abraham S. (2018). Salmonella enterica isolates from Western Australian rangeland goats remain susceptible to critically important antimicrobials. Sci Rep. 8.

    25. *Harb A, Habib I, Mezal EH, Kareem HS, Laird T, O’Dea M, Abraham S. (2018). Occurrence, antimicrobial resistance and whole-genome sequencing analysis of Salmonella isolates from chicken carcasses imported into Iraq from four different countries. Int J Food Microbiol. 284:84-90.

    26. *Jacobson C, Al-Habsi K, Ryan U, Williams A, Anderson F, Yang R, Abraham S, Miller D. (2018). Cryptosporidium infection is associated with reduced growth and diarrhoea in goats beyond weaning. Vet Parasitol. 260:30-7.

    27. *Lee T, Pang S, Abraham S, Coombs GW. (2018). Antimicrobial Resistant CC17 Enterococcus faecium: The Past, the Present and the Future. Journal Glob Antimicrob Resist. doi: 10.1016/j.jgar.2018.08.016

    28. Worthing K, Pang S, Trott DJ, Abraham S, Coombs GW, Jordan D, McIntyre L, Davies MR, Norris J. (2018). Characterisation of Staphylococcus felis isolated from cats using whole genome sequencing. Vet Microbiol. 222:98-104.

    29. Trott DJ, Abraham S, Adler B. (2018). Antimicrobial Resistance in LeptospiraBrucella, and Other Rarely Investigated Veterinary and Zoonotic Pathogens. Microbiol Spectrum. 6(4).

    30. Abraham S, Kirkwood RN, Laird T, Saputra S, Mitchell T, Singh M, Linn B, Abraham RJ, Pang S, Gordon DM, Trott DJ. (2018). Dissemination and persistence of extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistance encoding IncI1-bla CTXM-1 plasmid among Escherichia coli in pigs. ISME J. 12(10): 2352-2362

    31. *Rusdi B, Laird T, Abraham R, Ash A, Robertson ID, Mukerji S, Coombs GW, Abraham S, O’Dea MA. (2018). Carriage of critically important antimicrobial resistant bacteria and zoonotic parasites amongst camp dogs in remote Western Australian indigenous communities. Sci Rep. 8(1):8725.

    32. Khazandi M, Al-Farha AA, Coombs GW, O’Dea M, Pang S, Trott DJ, Aviles RR, Hemmatzadeh F, Venter H, Ogunniyi AD, Hoare A, Abraham S, Petrosvki K (2018). Genomic characterization of coagulase-negative staphylococci including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus sciuri causing bovine mastitis. Vet Microbiol. 219:17-22.

    33. Worthing KA, Marcus A, Abraham S, Trott DJ, Norris JM. (2018). Qac genes and biocide tolerance in clinical veterinary methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. Vet Microbiol. 216:153-8.

    34. Worthing KA, Abraham S, Pang S, Coombs GW, Saputra S, Jordan D, Wong HS, Abraham RJ, Trott DJ, Norris JM. (2018). Molecular characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from Australian animals and veterinarians. Microb Drug Res. 24(2):203-12.

    35. *Badger S, Abraham S, Saputra S, Trott DJ, Turnidge J, Mitchell T, Caraguel CG, Jordan D. (2018). Relative performance of antimicrobial susceptibility assays on clinical Escherichia coli isolates from animals. Vet Microbiol. 214:56-64.

    36. Worthing KA, Brown J, Gerber L, Trott DJ, Abraham S, Norris JM. (2018). Molecular epidemiology of methicillin-resistant staphylococci amongst veterinary personnel, personnel-owned pets, patients and the hospital environment of two small animal veterinary hospitals. 223: 79-85

    37. *Kidsley AK, Abraham S, Bell JM, O’Dea M, Laird TJ, Jordan D, Mitchell P, McDevitt CA, Trott DJ. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli and Salmonellaspp. isolates from healthy pigs in Australia: results of a pilot national survey. Front Microbiol. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.01207

    38. Abraham RJ, O’Dea M, Rusdi B, Page SW, O’Handley R, Abraham S. (2018). Giardia duodenalis Mouse Model for the Development of Novel Antigiardial Agents. J  Microbiol Methods. 145: 7-9

    39. *Al-Habsi K, Yang R, Abraham S, Miller D, Ryan U, Jacobson C. (2018). High rates of faecal carriage for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium by captured rangeland goats. Small Ruminant Resear. 158: 48-53

    40. Worthing K, Abraham S, Coombs GW, Pang S, Saputra S, Jordan D, Trott DJ, Norris J. (2018). Clonal diversity and geographic distribution of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius from Australian animals: Discovery of novel sequence types. Vet Microbiol. 213: 58-65

    41. Abraham S, O’Dea M, Page S, Trott DJ. (2017). Current and future antimicrobial resistance issues for the Australian pig industry. Animal Production Science. 57: 2398–2407

    42. *Harb A, O’Dea M, Hanan ZK, Abraham S, Habib I. (2017). Prevalence, Risk Factors and Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella Diarrhoeal Infection among Children in Thi-Qar Governorate, Iraq. Epidemiol Infect. 145(16):3486-96.

    43. *Saputra S, Jordan D, Mitchell T, Wong HS, Abraham RJ, Kidsley A, Turnidge J, Trott DJ, Abraham S. (2017). Antimicrobial resistance in clinical Escherichia coliisolated from companion animals in Australia. Vet Microbiol. 211:43-50.

    44. Abraham S, Jagoe S, Pang S, Coombs GW, O’Dea M, Kelly J, Khazandi M, Petrovski KR, Trott DJ. (2017). Reverse zoonotic transmission of community-associated MRSA ST1-IV to a dairy cow. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 50: 125-126

    45. Sahibzada S, Abraham S, Coombs G, Pang S, Hernandez-Jover M, Jordan D, Heller J. (2017). Transmission of highly virulent community-associated MRSA ST93 and livestock-associated MRSA ST398 between humans and pigs in Australia. Sci Rep. 7: 5273

    46. *Saputra S, Jordan D, Worthing KA, Norris JM, Wong HS, Abraham R, Trott DJ, Abraham S. (2017). Antimicrobial resistance in coagulase-positive staphylococci isolated from companion animals in Australia: A one year study. PLoS One. 12, e0176379.

    47. *Mukerji S, O’Dea M, Barton M, Kirkwood R, Lee T, Abraham S. (2017). Development and transmission of antimicrobial resistance among Gram-negative bacteria in animals and their public health impact. Essays Biochem. 61: 23-35

    48. Wang Y, Barton M, Elliott L, Li X, Abraham S, O’Dea M, Munro J. (2017). Bacteriophage therapy for the control of Vibrio harveyi in greenlip abalone (Haliotis laevigata). Aquaculture. 473: 251-258

    49. Yang R, Abraham S, Gardner G E, Ryan U, Jacobson C. (2017). Prevalence and pathogen load of Campylobacter spp., Salmonella enterica and E. coli O157/O145 serogroup in sheep faeces collected at sale yards and in abattoir effluent in Western Australia. Aust Vet J. 95: 143-148

    50. Abraham S, O’Dea M, Trott DJ, Abraham RJ, Hughes D, Pang S, McKew G, Cheong EYL, Merlino J, Saputhra S, Malik M, Gottlieb, T. (2016). Isolation and plasmid characterization of carbapenemase (IMP-4) producing Salmonella entericaTyphimurium from cats. Sci Rep. 6:35527

    51. Vangchhia B, Abraham S, Bell JM, Collignon P, Gibson JS, Ingram PR, Johnson JR, Kennedy K, Trott DJ, Turnidge JD, Gordon DM. (2016). Phylogenetic Diversity, Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Virulence Characteristics of Phylogroup F Escherichia coli in Australia. Microbiology. 162: 1904-1912

    52. Jahanbakhsh S, Smith MG, Kohan-Ghadr H, Letellier A, Abraham S, Trott DJ, Fairbrother JM. (2016). Dynamics of extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistance in pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from diseased pigs in Quebec, Canada. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 48: 194-202

    53. Worthing KA, Coombs GW, Pang S, Abraham S, Saputra S, Trott DJ, Jordan D, Wong HS, Abraham RJ, Norris JM. (2016). Isolation of mecC methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Australia. J Antimicrob Chemother. 71: 2348-2349

    54. *Brean M, Abraham S, Hebart M, Kirkwood RN. (2016). Influence of parity of birth and suckled sows on piglet nasal mucosal colonization with Haemophilus parasuis. Canad Vet J. 57: 1281

    55. Smith MG, Jordan D, Gibson JS, Cobbold RN, Chapman TA, Abraham S, Chin J-JC, Trott DJ. (2016). Phenotypic and genotypic profiling of antimicrobial resistance in enteric Escherichia coli communities isolated from finisher pigs in Australia. Aust Vet J. 94: 371-376

    56. Groves MD, Crouch B, Coombs GW, Jordan D, Pang S, Barton MD, Giffard P, Abraham S, Trott DJ: (2016). Molecular Epidemiology of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Australian Veterinarians. PLoS ONE. 11(1):e0146034.

    57. Abraham RJ, Stevens AJ, Young KA, Russell C, Qvist A, Khazandi M, Wong HS, Abraham S, Ogunniyi AD, Page SW, O’Handley R, McCluskey A, Trott DJ. (2016).  Robenidine Analogues as Gram-Positive Antibacterial Agents. J Med Chem. 59: 2126–2138

    58. Abraham S, Jordan D, Wong HS, Johnson JR, Gordon D, Wakeham DL , Turnidge JD, Mollinger JL, Gibson JS, Trott DJ. (2015). First detection of cephalosporin and fluoroquinolone-resistant pathogenic Escherichia coli  in Australian food-producing animals, representing internationally disseminated, multidrug-resistant zooanthroponotic clonal lineages. J Global Antimicrob Res. 3: 273-277

    59. Wyrsch E, Chowdhury PR, Abraham S, Santos J, Darling AE, Charles IG, Chapman TA, Djordjevic SP. (2015). Comparative Genomic Analysis of a Multiple Antimicrobial Resistant Enterotoxigenic E. coli O157 Lineage from Australian Pigs.  BMC Genomics. 16:165

    60. Pande V, Gole V, McWhorter A, Abraham S, Chousalkar K. (2015). Characterisation of antimicrobial resistance and biofilm formation of Salmonella spp. isolated from layer flocks of Australia. Int J Food Microbiol. 203:23-26

    61. Blyton M, Pi H, Vangchhia B, Abraham S, Trott D, Johnson J, Gordon D. (2015).  The genetic structure and antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli  and cryptic clades in birds with diverse human associations. App Environ Microbiol. 81:5123–5133.

    62. Guo S, Wakeham D, Brouwers B, Cobbold R N, Abraham S, Mollinger JL , Johnson JR, Chapman TA, Gordon DA, Barrs VR, Trott DJ (2015) Human-Associated Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Escherichia coli  Clonal Lineages, including ST354, Isolated from Canine Feces and Extraintestinal Infections in Australia (2015) Microbes and Infect. 17:266-274

    63. Abraham S, Wong HS, Turnidge J, Johnson JR, Trott DJ. (2014). Carbapenemase-producing bacteria in companion animals: a public health concern on the horizon. J  Antimicrob Chemother. 69:1155-7

    64. Abraham S, Trott DJ, Jordan D, Gordon DM, Groves MD, Fairbrother JM, Smith M, Zhang R, Chapman TA. (2014). Phylogenetic and molecular insights into the evolution of multidrug-resistant porcine enterotoxigenic E. coli in Australia. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 44:105-111

    65. Abraham S, Groves MD, Trott DJ, Chapman TA, Turner B, Hornitzky M, Jordan D. (2014). Salmonella enterica isolated from infections in Australian livestock remain susceptible to critical antimicrobials. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 43:126-130

    66. Groves MD, O’Sullivan MV, Brouwers, HJ,  Chapman TA, Abraham S, Trott DJ, Al-Jassim R, Coombs GW, Skov RL, Jordan D. (2014). Staphylococcus aureus ST398 detected in pigs in Australia. J  Antimicrob Chemother. 69:1426-1428

    67. Siak M, Burrows AK, Coombs GW, Khazandi M, Abraham S, Norris JM, Weese JS, Trott DJ. (2014). Characterisation of methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible isolates of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius from cases of canine pyoderma in Australia. J Med Microbiol. 63: 1228-1233

    68. Feary D, Abraham S, Woolford L, Trott DJ. (2013). Identification of Actinomyces denticolens as a cause of a soft tissue abscess in a horse. Aust Vet J. 91, 416-417

    69. Abraham S, Chapman TA, Zhang R, Chin J, Mabbett AE, Totsika M, Schembri MA. (2012). Molecular characterization of Escherichia coli that cause symptomatic and asymptomatic urinary tract Infections. J Clin Microbiol 50. 1027-1030.

    70. Abraham S, Gordon DM, Chin J, Brouwers HJ, Njuguna P, Groves MD, Zhang R, Chapman TA. (2012). Molecular characterization of commensal Escherichia coliadapted to different compartments of the porcine gastrointestinal tract. Appl Environ Microbiol. 78(19), 6799-6803.

    71. Abraham S, Chin J, Brouwers HJ, Zhang R, Chapman TA. (2012). Molecular serogrouping of porcine enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli from Australia. J Microbiol Methods. 88(1), 73-76.

    72. Abraham S, Chin J, Brouwers HJ, Turner B, Zhang R, Chapman TA. (2011). GFP based biosensor to detect and quantify stress responses by DNA degrading colicins. Appl Environ Microbiol. 77, 6691-6693

    Additional Research Outputs

    1. Murphy RJT , Lee YT, Pang S, Bastholm TR, Crow JE, Davis AM, Coombs GW, O’Dea M, Abraham S, & Ramsay JP. (2018) Complete genome sequence of a Staphylococcus aureus sequence type 612 isolate from an Australian Horse’, Microbiology Resource Announcements, vol. 7, no. 4, doi:10.1128/MRA.00869-18

    2. Trott D, Jordan D, Barton M, Abraham S & Groves M (2013), ‘Vets versus pets: methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Australian animals and their doctors’, Microbiology Australia, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 25, doi:10.1071/ma13008